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Minimal PaO2 threshold after traumatic brain injury and clinical utility of a novel brain oxygenation ratio

Laura Dellazizzo, Simon-Pierre Demers, Emmanuel Charbonney, Virginie Williams, Karim Serri, Martin Albert, Jean-François Giguère, Mathieu Laroche, David Williamson, and Francis Bernard

OBJECTIVE

Avoiding decreases in brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important. How best to adjust PbtO2 remains unclear. The authors investigated the association between partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and PbtO2 to determine the minimal PaO2 required to maintain PbtO2 above the hypoxic threshold (> 20 mm Hg), accounting for other determinants of PbtO2 and repeated measurements in the same patient. They also explored the clinical utility of a novel concept, the brain oxygenation ratio (BOx ratio = PbtO2/PaO2) to detect overtreatment with the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2).

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study at an academic level 1 trauma center included 38 TBI patients who required the insertion of a monitor to measure PbtO2. Various determinants of PbtO2 were collected simultaneously whenever a routine arterial blood gas was drawn. A PbtO2/PaO2 ratio was calculated for each blood gas and plotted over time for each patient. All patients were managed according to a standardized clinical protocol. A mixed effects model was used to account for repeated measurements in the same patient.

RESULTS

A total of 1006 data points were collected. The lowest mean PaO2 observed to maintain PbtO2 above the ischemic threshold was 94 mm Hg. Only PaO2 and cerebral perfusion pressure were predictive of PbtO2 in multivariate analysis. The PbtO2/PaO2 ratio was below 0.15 in 41.7% of all measures and normal PbtO2 values present despite an abnormal ratio in 27.1% of measurements.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ results suggest that the minimal PaO2 target to ensure adequate cerebral oxygenation during the first few days after TBI should be higher than that suggested in the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines. The use of a PbtO2/PaO2 ratio (BOx ratio) may be clinically useful and identifies abnormal O2 delivery mechanisms (cerebral blood flow, diffusion, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen) despite normal PbtO2.

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Natural history of ventriculostomy-related infection under appropriate treatment and risk factors of poor outcome: a retrospective study

Roman Mounier, Ron Birnbaum, Fabrice Cook, Paul-Henri Jost, Mathieu Martin, Bouziane Aït-Mamar, Biba Nebbad, Séverine Couffin, Françoise Tomberli, Ryad Djedid, Gilles Dhonneur, and David Lobo

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to describe the natural history of ventriculostomy-related infections (VRIs) under appropriate treatment and to assess risk factors for poor outcome.

METHODS

All patients older than 18 years in whom an external ventricular drain (EVD) had been implanted and who had developed a VRI requiring treatment were included in this retrospective study. D0 was defined as the first day of antibiotic administration. Clinical and biological parameters were compared each day beginning with D1 and ending with D10 to those of D0. The authors defined D0 in a control group as the day a CSF culture came back positive, without any sign of infection. The authors then searched for poor prognostic factors in the VRI group.

RESULTS

Among 567 patients requiring an EVD between January 2007 and October 2017, 39 developed a VRI. Most were monomicrobial infections, and 47 microbes were responsible (45% were gram-positive cocci). Clinical parameters differed significantly from the control group during the first 2 days and then returned to baseline. The CSF parameters differed significantly from the control group for a longer period, returning to baseline after 5 days. CSF sterilization occurred in a median time of 2 days. An intrathecal route or EVD exchange was not associated with a poor outcome. No clinical or biological parameter between D3 and D5 was linked to outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical status improved faster than CSF parameters (before and after D5, respectively). Some CSF parameters remained abnormal until D10. Body temperature and microbiological cultures normalized faster than other parameters.

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The results of a third Gamma Knife procedure for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia

Zachary J. Tempel, Srinivas Chivukula, Edward A. Monaco III, Greg Bowden, Hideyuki Kano, Ajay Niranjan, Edward F. Chang, Penny K. Sneed, Anthony M. Kaufmann, Jason Sheehan, David Mathieu, and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECT

Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is the least invasive treatment option for medically refractory, intractable trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and is especially valuable for treating elderly, infirm patients or those on anticoagulation therapy. The authors reviewed pain outcomes and complications in TN patients who required 3 radiosurgical procedures for recurrent or persistent pain.

METHODS

A retrospective review of all patients who underwent 3 GKRS procedures for TN at 4 participating centers of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium from 1995 to 2012 was performed. The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain score was used to evaluate pain outcomes.

RESULTS

Seventeen patients were identified; 7 were male and 10 were female. The mean age at the time of last GKRS was 79.6 years (range 51.2–95.6 years). The TN was Type I in 16 patients and Type II in 1 patient. No patient suffered from multiple sclerosis. Eight patients (47.1%) reported initial complete pain relief (BNI Score I) following their third GKRS and 8 others (47.1%) experienced at least partial relief (BNI Scores II–IIIb). The average time to initial response was 2.9 months following the third GKRS. Although 3 patients (17.6%) developed new facial sensory dysfunction following primary GKRS and 2 patients (11.8%) experienced new or worsening sensory disturbance following the second GKRS, no patient sustained additional sensory disturbances after the third procedure. At a mean follow-up of 22.9 months following the third GKRS, 6 patients (35.3%) reported continued Score I complete pain relief, while 7 others (41.2%) reported pain improvement (BNI Scores II–IIIb). Four patients (23.5%) suffered recurrent TN following the third procedure at a mean interval of 19.1 months.

CONCLUSIONS

A third GKRS resulted in pain reduction with a low risk of additional complications in most patients with medically refractory and recurrent, intractable TN. In patients unsuitable for other microsurgical or percutaneous strategies, especially those receiving long-term oral anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents, GKRS repeated for a third time was a satisfactory, low risk option.

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Skull base chondrosarcoma radiosurgery: report of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium

Hideyuki Kano, Jason Sheehan, Penny K. Sneed, Heyoung L. McBride, Byron Young, Christopher Duma, David Mathieu, Zachary Seymour, Michael W. McDermott, Douglas Kondziolka, Aditya Iyer, and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECT

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a potentially important option for patients with skull base chondrosarcomas. The object of this study was to analyze the outcomes of SRS for chondrosarcoma patients who underwent this treatment as a part of multimodality management.

METHODS

Seven participating centers of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium (NAGKC) identified 46 patients who underwent SRS for skull base chondrosarcomas. Thirty-six patients had previously undergone tumor resections and 5 had been treated with fractionated radiation therapy (RT). The median tumor volume was 8.0 cm3 (range 0.9–28.2 cm3), and the median margin dose was 15 Gy (range 10.5–20 Gy). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate progression-free and overall survival rates.

RESULTS

At a median follow-up of 75 months after SRS, 8 patients were dead. The actuarial overall survival after SRS was 89% at 3 years, 86% at 5 years, and 76% at 10 years. Local tumor progression occurred in 10 patients. The rate of progression-free survival (PFS) after SRS was 88% at 3 years, 85% at 5 years, and 70% at 10 years. Prior RT was significantly associated with shorter PFS. Eight patients required salvage resection, and 3 patients (7%) developed adverse radiation effects. Cranial nerve deficits improved in 22 (56%) of the 39 patients who deficits before SRS. Clinical improvement after SRS was noted in patients with abducens nerve paralysis (61%), oculomotor nerve paralysis (50%), lower cranial nerve dysfunction (50%), optic neuropathy (43%), facial neuropathy (38%), trochlear nerve paralysis (33%), trigeminal neuropathy (12%), and hearing loss (10%).

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery for skull base chondrosarcomas is an important adjuvant option for the treatment of these rare tumors, as part of a team approach that includes initial surgical removal of symptomatic larger tumors.

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Stereotactic radiosurgery for idiopathic glossopharyngeal neuralgia: an international multicenter study

Hideyuki Kano, Dusan Urgosik, Roman Liscak, Bruce E. Pollock, Or Cohen-Inbar, Jason P. Sheehan, Mayur Sharma, Danilo Silva, Gene H. Barnett, David Mathieu, Nathaniel D. Sisterson, and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) when used for patients with intractable idiopathic glossopharyngeal neuralgia.

METHODS

Six participating centers of the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation identified 22 patients who underwent SRS for intractable glossopharyngeal neuralgia between 1998 and 2015. The median patient age was 60 years (range 34–83 years). The median duration of symptoms before SRS was 46 months (range 1–240 months). Three patients had unsuccessful prior surgical procedures, including microvascular decompression (MVD) (n = 2) and balloon compression (n = 1). The radiosurgical target was the glossopharyngeal meatus. The median maximum dose was 80 Gy.

RESULTS

The median follow-up was 45 months after SRS (range 6–120 months). Twelve patients (55%) had < 4 years of follow-up. Thirteen patients (59%) had initial complete pain relief at a median of 12 days after SRS (range 1–60 days). Three patients (14%) had partial pain relief at a median of 70 days after SRS (range 60–90 days). Six patients (27%) had no pain relief. Among 16 patients with initial pain relief, 5 maintained complete pain relief without medication (Barrow Neurological Institute [BNI] pain intensity score Grade I), 1 maintained occasional pain relief without medication (BNI Grade II), 3 maintained complete pain relief with medication (BNI Grade IIIb), and 7 patients had pain recurrence at a median of 20 months after SRS (range 6–120 months). The rates of maintenance of adequate pain relief (BNI Grades I–IIIb) were 63% at 1 year, 49% at 2 years, 38% at 3 years, 38% at 5 years, and 28% at 7 years. When 7 patients without pain recurrence within 4 years of follow-up were excluded, the rates of maintenance of adequate pain relief were 38% at 5 years and 28% at 7 years. Ten patients required additional procedures (MVD, n = 4; repeat SRS, n = 5; glossopharyngeal nerve block, n = 1). Four of 5 patients who underwent repeat SRS maintained pain relief (BNI Grade I, n = 3; and BNI Grade IIIb, n = 1). No adverse effects of radiation were observed after a single SRS. Two patients developed hyperesthesia in the palatoglossal arch 5 and 8 months after repeat SRS, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery for intractable, medically refractory glossopharyngeal neuralgia provided lasting pain reduction in 55% of patients after 1 or 2 SRS procedures. Patients who had a poor response or pain recurrence may require additional procedures such as repeat SRS, MVD, nerve blocks, or nerve section. No patient developed changes in vocal cord function or swallowing disorders after SRS in this study.

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Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the basal ganglia and thalamus: an international multicenter study

Ching-Jen Chen, Kathryn N. Kearns, Dale Ding, Hideyuki Kano, David Mathieu, Douglas Kondziolka, Caleb Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Inga S. Grills, Gene H. Barnett, L. Dade Lunsford, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus are associated with elevated risks of both hemorrhage if left untreated and neurological morbidity after resection. Therefore, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become a mainstay in the management of these lesions, although its safety and efficacy remain incompletely understood. The aim of this retrospective multicenter cohort study was to evaluate the outcomes of SRS for BG and thalamic AVMs and determine predictors of successful endpoints and adverse radiation effects.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed data on patients with BG or thalamic AVMs who had undergone SRS at eight institutions participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation (IGKRF) from 1987 to 2014. Favorable outcome was defined as AVM obliteration, no post-SRS hemorrhage, and no permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RICs). Multivariable models were developed to identify independent predictors of outcome.

RESULTS

The study cohort comprised 363 patients with BG or thalamic AVMs. The mean AVM volume and SRS margin dose were 3.8 cm3 and 20.7 Gy, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 86.5 months. Favorable outcome was achieved in 58.5% of patients, including obliteration in 64.8%, with rates of post-SRS hemorrhage and permanent RIC in 11.3% and 5.6% of patients, respectively. Independent predictors of favorable outcome were no prior AVM embolization (p = 0.011), a higher margin dose (p = 0.008), and fewer isocenters (p = 0.044).

CONCLUSIONS

SRS is the preferred intervention for the majority of BG and thalamic AVMs. Patients with morphologically compact AVMs that have not been previously embolized are more likely to have a favorable outcome, which may be related to the use of a higher margin dose.

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Outcome predictors of Gamma Knife surgery for melanoma brain metastases

Clinical article

Donald N. Liew, Hideyuki Kano, Douglas Kondziolka, David Mathieu, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger, John M. Kirkwood, Ahmad Tarhini, Stergios Moschos, and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

To evaluate the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of brain metastases from melanoma, the authors assessed clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for survival and tumor control.

Methods

The authors reviewed 333 consecutive patients with melanoma who underwent SRS for 1570 brain metastases from cutaneous and mucosal/acral melanoma. The patient population consisted of 109 female and 224 male patients with a median age of 53 years. Two hundred eleven patients (63%) had multiple metastases. One hundred eighteen patients (35%) underwent whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The target volume ranged from 0.1 cm3 to 37.2 cm3. The median marginal dose was 18 Gy.

Results

Actuarial survival rates were 70% at 3 months, 47% at 6 months, 25% at 12 months, and 10% at 24 months after radiosurgery. Factors associated with longer survival included controlled extracranial disease, better Karnofsky Performance Scale score, fewer brain metastases, no prior WBRT, no prior chemotherapy, administration of immunotherapy, and no intratumoral hemorrhage before radiosurgery. The median survival for patients with a solitary brain metastasis, controlled extracranial disease, and administration of immunotherapy after radiosurgery was 22 months. Sustained local tumor control was achieved in 73% of the patients. Sixty-four (25%) of 259 patients who had follow-up imaging after SRS had evidence of delayed intratumoral hemorrhage. Sixteen patients underwent a craniotomy due to intratumoral hemorrhage. Seventeen patients (6%) had asymptomatic and 21 patients (7%) had symptomatic radiation effects. Patients with ≤ 8 brain metastases, no prior WBRT, and the recursive partitioning analysis Class I had extended survivals (median 54.3 months).

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an especially valuable option for patients with controlled systemic disease even if they have multiple metastatic brain tumors.

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Stereotactic radiosurgery for intractable cluster headache: an initial report from the North American Gamma Knife Consortium

Clinical article

Hideyuki Kano, Douglas Kondziolka, David Mathieu, Scott L. Stafford, Thomas J. Flannery, Ajay Niranjan, Bruce E. Pollock, Anthony M. Kaufmann, John C. Flickinger, and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) when used for patients with intractable cluster headache (CH).

Methods

Four participating centers of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium identified 17 patients who underwent GKS for intractable CH between 1996 and 2008. The median patient age was 47 years (range 26–83 years). The median duration of pain before GKS was 10 years (range 1.3–40 years). Seven patients underwent unsuccessful prior surgical procedures, including microvascular decompression (2 patients), microvascular decompression with glycerol rhizotomy (2 patients), deep brain stimulation (1 patient), trigeminal ganglion stimulation (1 patient), and prior GKS (1 patient). Fourteen patients had associated autonomic symptoms. The radiosurgical target was the trigeminal nerve (TN) root and the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) in 8 patients, only the TN in 8 patients, and only the SPG in 1 patient. The median maximum TN and SPG dose was 80 Gy.

Results

Favorable pain relief (Barrow Neurological Institute Grades I–IIIb) was achieved and maintained in 10 (59%) of 17 patients at a median follow-up of 34 months. Three patients required additional procedures (repeat GKS in 2 patients, hypothalamic deep brain stimulation in 1 patient). Eight (50%) of 16 patients who had their TN irradiated developed facial sensory dysfunction after GKS.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery for intractable, medically refractory CH provided lasting pain reduction in approximately 60% of patients, but was associated with a significantly greater chance of facial sensory disturbances than GKS used for trigeminal neuralgia.

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Neurofibromatosis type 2–associated meningiomas: an international multicenter study of outcomes after Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

Nasser Mohammed, Yi-Chieh Hung, Zhiyuan Xu, Tomas Chytka, Roman Liscak, Manjul Tripathi, David Arsanious, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Marco Perez Caceres, David Mathieu, Herwin Speckter, Gautam U. Mehta, Gregory P. Lekovic, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

The management of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)–associated meningiomas is challenging. The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in the treatment of these tumors remains to be fully defined. In this study, the authors aimed to examine the role of GKRS in the treatment of NF2-associated meningiomas and to evaluate the outcomes and complications after treatment.

METHODS

Seven international medical centers contributed data for this retrospective cohort. Tumor progression was defined as a ≥ 20% increase from the baseline value. The clinical features, treatment details, outcomes, and complications were studied. The median follow-up was 8.5 years (range 0.6–25.5 years) from the time of initial GKRS. Shared frailty Cox regression was used for analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 204 meningiomas in 39 patients treated with GKRS were analyzed. Cox regression analysis showed that increasing the maximum dose (p = 0.02; HR 12.2, 95% CI 1.287–116.7) and a lower number of meningiomas at presentation (p = 0.03; HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.821–0.990) were predictive of better tumor control in both univariable and multivariable settings. Age at onset, sex, margin dose, location, and presence of neurological deficit were not predictive of tumor progression. The cumulative 10-year progression-free survival was 94.8%. Radiation-induced adverse effects were noted in 4 patients (10%); these were transient and managed medically. No post-GKRS malignant transformation was noted in 287 person-years of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

GKRS achieved effective tumor control with a low and generally acceptable rate of complications in NF2-associated meningiomas. There did not appear to be an appreciable risk of post–GKRS-induced malignancy in patients with NF2-treated meningiomas.

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International multicenter cohort study of pediatric brain arteriovenous malformations. Part 1: Predictors of hemorrhagic presentation

Dale Ding, Robert M. Starke, Hideyuki Kano, David Mathieu, Paul P. Huang, Caleb Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Luis Almodovar, Inga S. Grills, Danilo Silva, Mahmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, Douglas Kondziolka, Gene H. Barnett, L. Dade Lunsford, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric patients (age < 18 years). Since the cumulative lifetime risk of AVM hemorrhage is considerable in children, an improved understanding of the risk factors influencing hemorrhagic presentation may aid in the management of pediatric AVMs. The aims of this first of a 2-part multicenter, retrospective cohort study are to evaluate the incidence and determine the predictors of hemorrhagic presentation in pediatric AVM patients.

METHODS

The authors analyzed pooled AVM radiosurgery data from 7 institutions participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation (IGKRF). Patients younger than 18 years at the time of radiosurgery and who had at least 12 months of follow-up were included in the study cohort. Patient and AVM characteristics were compared between unruptured and ruptured pediatric AVMs.

RESULTS

A total of 357 pediatric patients were eligible for analysis, including 112 patients in the unruptured and 245 patients in the ruptured AVM cohorts (69% incidence of hemorrhagic presentation). The annual hemorrhage rate prior to radiosurgery was 6.3%. Hemorrhagic presentation was significantly more common in deep locations (basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem) than in cortical locations (frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes) (76% vs 62%, p = 0.006). Among the factors found to be significantly associated with hemorrhagic presentation in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, deep venous drainage (OR 3.2, p < 0.001) was the strongest independent predictor, followed by female sex (OR 1.7, p = 0.042) and smaller AVM volume (OR 1.1, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Unruptured and ruptured pediatric AVMs have significantly different patient and nidal features. Pediatric AVM patients who possess 1 or more of these high-risk features may be candidates for relatively more aggressive management strategies.