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Stephen T. Magill, Cecilia L. Dalle Ore, Michael A. Diaz, Daara D. Jalili, David R. Raleigh, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Recurrent meningiomas are primarily managed with radiation therapy or repeat resection. Surgical morbidity after reoperation for recurrent meningiomas is poorly understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to report surgical outcomes after reoperation for recurrent non–skull base meningiomas.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients was performed. Inclusion criteria were patients with recurrent meningioma who had prior resection and supratentorial non–skull base location. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and recursive partitioning analysis were used to identify risk factors for surgical complications.

RESULTS

The authors identified 67 patients who underwent 111 reoperations for recurrent supratentorial non–skull base meningiomas. The median age was 53 years, 49% were female, and the median follow-up was 9.8 years. The most common presenting symptoms were headache, weakness, and seizure. The WHO grade after the last reoperation was grade I in 22% of cases, grade II in 51%, and grade III in 27%. The tumor grade increased at reoperation in 22% of cases. Tumors were located on the convexity (52%), parasagittal (33%), falx (31%), and multifocal (19%) locations. Tumors involved the middle third of the sagittal plane in 52% of cases. In the 111 reoperations, 48 complications occurred in 32 patients (48%). There were 26 (54%) complications requiring surgical intervention. There was no perioperative mortality. Complications included neurological deficits (14% total, 8% permanent), wound dehiscence/infection (14%), and CSF leak/pseudomeningocele/hydrocephalus (9%). Tumors that involved the middle third of the sagittal plane (OR 6.97, 95% CI 1.5–32.0, p = 0.006) and presentation with cognitive changes (OR 20.7, 95% CI 2.3–182.7, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with complication occurrence on multivariate analysis. The median survival after the first reoperation was 11.5 years, and the 2-, 5-, and 10-year Kaplan-Meier survival rates were 91.0%, 68.8%, and 50.0%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Reoperation for recurrent supratentorial non–skull base meningioma is associated with a high rate of complications. Patients with cognitive changes and tumors that overlap the middle third of the sagittal plane are at increased risk of complications. Nevertheless, excellent long-term survival can be achieved without perioperative mortality.

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Cecilia L. Dalle Ore, Stephen T. Magill, Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Maryam N. Shahin, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, Robert C. Kersten, Oluwatobi O. Idowu, M. Reza Vagefi, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Hyperostosing sphenoid wing meningiomas cause bony hyperostosis that may extend into the orbit, resulting in proptosis, restriction of extraocular movements, and/or compressive optic neuropathy. The extent of bony removal necessary and the optimal reconstruction strategy to prevent enophthalmos is debated. Herein, the authors present their surgical outcomes and reconstruction results.

METHODS

This is a retrospective review of 54 consecutive patients undergoing resection of sphenoid wing meningiomas associated with bony hyperostosis. The majority of cases were operated on by the senior author. Extent of tumor resection, volumetric bone resection, radiographic exophthalmos index, complications, and recurrence were analyzed.

RESULTS

The median age of the cohort was 52.1 years, with women comprising 83% of patients. Proptosis was a presenting symptom in 74%, and 52% had decreased visual acuity. The WHO grade was I (85%) or II (15%). The median follow-up was 2.6 years. On volumetric analysis, a median 86% of hyperostotic bone was resected. Gross-total resection of the intracranial tumor was achieved in 43% and the orbital tumor in 27%, and of all intracranial and orbital components in 20%. Orbital reconstruction was performed in 96% of patients. Postoperative vision was stable or improved in 98% of patients and diplopia improved in 89%. Postoperative complications occurred in 44% of patients, and 26% of patients underwent additional surgery for complication management. The most frequent complications were medical complications and extraocular movement deficits. The median preoperative exophthalmos index was 1.26, which improved to 1.12 immediately postoperatively and to 1.09 at the 6-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Postoperatively, 18 patients (33%) underwent adjuvant radiotherapy after subtotal resection. Tumors recurred/progressed in 12 patients (22%).

CONCLUSIONS

Resection of hyperostosing sphenoid wing meningiomas, particularly achieving gross-total resection of hyperostotic bone with a good aesthetic result, is challenging and associated with notable medical and ocular morbidity. Recurrence rates in this series are higher than previously reported. Nevertheless, the authors were able to attain improvement in proptosis and visual symptoms in the majority of patients by using a multidisciplinary approach.

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Cecilia L. Dalle Ore, Stephen T. Magill, Adam J. Yen, Maryam N. Shahin, David S. Lee, Calixto-Hope G. Lucas, William C. Chen, Jennifer A. Viner, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, David R. Raleigh, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Extracranial meningioma metastases are uncommon, occurring in less than 1% of patients diagnosed with meningioma. Due to the rarity of meningioma metastases, patients are not routinely screened for distant disease. In this series, we report their experience with meningioma metastases and results of screening for metastases in select patients with recurrent meningiomas.

METHODS

All patients undergoing resection or stereotactic radiosurgery for primary or recurrent meningioma from 2009 to 2017 at a single center were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who were diagnosed with or underwent imaging to evaluate for systemic metastases. Imaging to evaluate for metastases was performed with CT scanning of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis or whole-body PET/CT using either FDG or 68Ga-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) tracers in 28 patients. Indications for imaging were symptomatic lesions concerning for metastasis or asymptomatic screening in patients with greater than 2 recurrences being evaluated for additional treatment.

RESULTS

Of 1193 patients treated for meningioma, 922 (77.3%) patients had confirmed or presumed WHO grade I tumors, 236 (19.8%) had grade II tumors, and 35 (2.9%) had grade III tumors. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years. A total of 207 patients experienced recurrences (17.4%), with a mean of 1.8 recurrences. Imaging for metastases was performed in 28 patients; 1 metastasis was grade I (3.6%), 16 were grade II (57.1%), and 11 were grade III (39.3%). Five patients (17.9%) underwent imaging because of symptomatic lesions. Of the 28 patients screened, 27 patients had prior recurrent meningioma (96.4%), with a median of 3 recurrences. On imaging, 10 patients had extracranial lesions suspicious for metastasis (35.7%). At biopsy, 8 were meningioma metastases, 1 was a nonmeningioma malignancy, and 1 patient was lost to follow-up prior to biopsy. Biopsy-confirmed metastases occurred in the liver (5), lung (3), mediastinum (1), and bone (1). The observed incidence of metastases was 0.67% (n = 8). Incidence increased to 2% of WHO grade II and 8.6% of grade III meningiomas. Using the proposed indications for screening, the number needed to screen to identify one patient with biopsy-confirmed malignancy was 3.83.

CONCLUSIONS

Systemic imaging of patients with multiply recurrent meningioma or symptoms concerning for metastasis may identify extracranial metastases in a significant proportion of patients and can inform decision making for additional treatments.