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Yuichi Murayama, Fernando Viñuela, Satoshi Tateshima, Joon K. Song, Nestor R. Gonzalez, and Michael P. Wallace

Object. A new embolic agent, bioabsorbable polymeric material (BPM), was incorporated into Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) to improve long-term anatomical results in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The authors investigated whether BPM-mounted GDCs (BPM/GDCs) accelerated the histopathological transformation of unorganized blood clot into fibrous connective tissue in experimental aneurysms created in swine.

Methods. Twenty-four experimental aneurysms were created in 12 swine. In each animal, one aneurysm was embolized using BPM/GDCs and the other aneurysm was embolized using standard GDCs. Comparative angiographic and histopathological data were analyzed at 2 weeks and 3 months postembolization.

At 14 days postembolization, angiograms revealed evidence of neck neointima in six of eight aneurysms treated with BPM/GDCs compared with zero of eight aneurysms treated with standard GDCs (p < 0.05). At 3 months postembolization, angiograms demonstrated that four of four aneurysms treated with BPM/GDC were smaller and had neck neointima compared with zero of four aneurysms treated with standard GDCs (p = 0.05). At 14 days, histological analysis of aneurysm healing favored BPM/GDC treatment (all p < 0.05): the grade of cellular reaction around the coils was 3 ± 0.9 (mean ± standard deviation) for aneurysms treated using BPM/GDCs compared with 1.6 ± 0.7 for aneurysms treated using GDCs alone; the percentage of unorganized thrombus was 16 ± 12% compared with 37 ± 15%, and the neck neointima thickness was 0.65 ±0.26 mm compared with 0.24 ±0.21 mm, respectively. At 3 months postembolization, only neck neointima thickness was significantly different (p < 0.05): 0.73 ± 0.37 mm in aneurysms filled with BPM/GDCs compared with 0.16 ± 0.14 mm in aneurysms filled with standard GDCs.

Conclusions. In experimental aneurysms in swine, BPM/GDCs accelerated aneurysm fibrosis and intensified neck neointima formation without causing parent artery stenosis or thrombosis. The use of BPM/GDCs may improve long-term anatomical outcomes by decreasing aneurysm recanalization due to stronger in situ anchoring of coils by organized fibrous tissue. The retraction of this scar tissue may also decrease the size of aneurysms and clinical manifestations of mass effect observed in large or giant aneurysms.

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Joon K. Song, Fernando Viñuela, Y. Pierre Gobin, Gary R. Duckwiler, Yuichi Murayama, Inam Kureshi, John G. Frazee, and Neil A. Martin

Object. The authors assessed clinical outcomes of patients with treated spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) and investigated prognostic factors.

Methods. Thirty consecutive patients with spinal DAVFs were treated at the authors' institution during the past 15 years: seven underwent surgery; seven underwent surgery after failed embolization; and 16 underwent embolization alone. The outcomes of gait and micturition disability were analyzed. Follow up averaged 3.4 years (range 1 month–11.8 years). Age, duration of symptoms, pre- and postintervention magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, and preintervention disability were correlated with outcome.

Seventeen patients (57%) experienced improved gait, 12 (40%) were unchanged, and one (3%) was worse. In 11 patients (37%) micturition function was improved, in 15 (50%) it was unchanged, and in four (13%) it was worse. Gait disability, as measured by the Aminoff—Logue Scale, was significantly improved after treatment, from 3.4 ± 1.4 (average ± standard deviation) to 2.7 ± 1.5 (p = 0.007). Mean micturition disability scores decreased, but not significantly, from 1.9 ± 1 to 1.6 ± 1.1 (p = 0.20). Preintervention gait disability was not associated with improvement except for patients with Aminoff—Logue Scale Grade 4 disability (eight of nine improved; p = 0.024). For patients treated within 13 months of symptom onset, mean micturition disability decreased (p = 0.035). No association was found between clinical improvement and age, a symptom duration less than 30 months, or pre- and postintervention MR imaging—documented spinal cord edema.

Conclusions. Spinal DAVF treatment significantly improved patients' mean gait disability score by almost one grade at last follow up. The mean micturition disability score was not significantly improved, unless treatment was performed within 13 months of symptom onset. Longer and more uniform follow-up study is needed to determine if improved and stabilized clinical outcomes are sustained.

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Joon K. Song, Aman B. Patel, Gary R. Duckwiler, Y. Pierre Gobin, Reza Jahan, Neil A. Martin, Edwin D. Cacayorin, and Fernando Viñuela

✓ The authors present the case of a 69-year-old man who suffered from bilateral cortical venous hypertension due to a brain pial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with a high-flow fistula. The AVM became complicated by the development of a high-grade stenosis of the posterior superior sagittal sinus (SSS). A comparison of cerebral angiograms obtained at different times revealed that the severe SSS stenosis had developed within a 5-year period and was located distal to the nidus of the left parietal AVM nidus, away from the entrance of the dominant superior superficial cortical draining vein into the SSS. The high-flow fistula was occluded with detachable coils and the AVM nidus was further embolized with acrylic. The SSS stenosis was mechanically dilated by means of balloon angioplasty and stent placement. This case provides angiographic evidence to support the hypothesis that a pial arteriovenous fistula in an adult can cause high-flow occlusive venopathy in a major sinus within a relatively short time and that this acquired high-flow occlusive venopathy can develop at an atypical location distant from the nidus of the AVM.