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Leonardo Renieri, Nicola Limbucci, Arturo Consoli, Andrea Rosi, Sergio Nappini, Flavio Giordano, Lorenzo Genitori, and Salvatore Mangiafico

The treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in children has always been a challenge for interventionalists, neurosurgeons, and radiosurgeons. Endovascular embolization is usually performed through transarterial access, but in selected cases the transvenous approach can be considered. The authors of this report aimed to evaluate the efficacy of transvenous embolization in very selected pediatric cases. They describe 4 children treated using transvenous embolization for AVMs that were small, had a single drainage vein, and were deeply located or had a difficult arterial access. The 6-month angiographic and clinical follow-ups are reported as well. In all cases, complete occlusion of the AVM was achieved with no side effects for the patient. Transvenous embolization may represent a promising alternative therapeutic option in very selected cases.