The authors previously showed that combined evaluation of changes in intraoperative voluntary movement (IVM) during awake craniotomy and transcortical motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was useful for predicting postoperative motor function in 30 patients with precentral gyrus glioma. However, the validity of the previous report is limited to precentral gyrus gliomas. Therefore, the current study aimed to validate whether the combined findings of IVM during awake craniotomy and transcortical MEPs were useful for predicting postoperative motor function of patients with a glioma within or close to motor-related areas and not limited to the precentral gyrus.
The authors included 95 patients with gliomas within or close to motor-related areas who were treated between April 2000 and May 2020. All tumors were resected with IVM monitoring during awake craniotomy and transcortical MEP monitoring. Postoperative motor function was classified into four categories: “no change” or “declined,” the latter of which was further categorization as “mild,” “moderate,” or “severe.” The authors defined moderate and severe deficits as those that impact daily life.
Motor function 6 months after surgery was classified as no change in 71 patients, mild in 18, moderate in 5, and severe in 1. Motor function at 6 months after surgery significantly correlated with IVM (p < 0.0001), transcortical MEPs (decline ≤ or > 50%) (p < 0.0001), age, preoperative motor dysfunction, extent of resection, and ischemic change on postoperative MRI. Thirty-two patients with no change in IVM showed no change in motor function at 6 months after surgery. Five of 34 patients (15%) with a decline in IVM and a decline in MEPs ≤ 50% had motor dysfunction with mild deficits 6 months after surgery. Furthermore, 19 of 23 patients (83%) with a decline in IVM and decline in MEPs > 50% had a decline in motor function, including 13 patients with mild, 5 with moderate, and 1 with severe deficits. Six patients with moderate or severe deficits had the lowest MEP values, at < 100 µV.
This study validated the utility of combined application of IVM during awake craniotomy and transcortical MEP monitoring to predict motor function at 6 months after surgery in patients with a glioma within or close to motor-related areas, not limited to the precentral gyrus. The authors also validated the usefulness of the cutoff value, 100 µV, in MEP monitoring.