Multiple meningiomas (MMs) occur in as many as 18% of patients with meningioma, and data on progression-free survival (PFS) are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the influence of the number of lesions and clinical characteristics on PFS in patients with WHO grade I meningiomas.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all adults diagnosed with a meningioma at their three main sites from January 2009 to May 2020. Progression was considered the time from diagnosis until radiographic growth of the originally resected meningioma. A secondary analysis was performed to evaluate the time of diagnosis until the time to second intervention (TTSI). Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess whether the number of lesions or any associated variables (age, sex, race, radiation treatment, tumor location, and extent of resection) had a significant impact on PFS and TTSI.
Eight hundred thirty-eight patients were included. Use of a log-rank test to evaluate PFS and TTSI between a single and multiple lesions showed a significantly shorter progression for MM (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed significantly inferior PFS on MM compared to a single lesion (hazard ratio [HR] 2.262, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.392–3.677, p = 0.001) and a significantly inferior TTSI for patients with MM when compared to patients with a single meningioma (HR 2.377, 95% CI 1.617–3.494, p = 0.001). By testing the number of meningiomas as a continuous variable, PFS was significantly inferior for each additional meningioma (HR 1.350, 95% CI 1.074–1.698, p = 0.010) and TTSI was significantly inferior as well (HR 1.428, 95% CI 1.189–1.716, p < 0.001). African American patients had an inferior PFS when compared to non-Hispanic White patients (HR 3.472, 95% CI 1.083–11.129, p = 0.036).
The PFS of meningiomas appears to be influenced by the number of lesions present. Patients with MM also appear to be more prone to undergoing a second intervention for progressive disease. Hence, a closer follow-up may be warranted in patients who present with multiple lesions. These results show a decreased PFS for each additional lesion present, as well as a shorter PFS for MM compared to a single lesion. When assessing associated risk factors, African American patients showed an inferior PFS, whereas older age and adjuvant therapy with radiation showed an improved PFS.