Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Martin H. Weiss x
  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: McComb, J. Gordon x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Stephanie S. Erlich, J. Gordon McComb, Shigeyo Hyman, and Martin H. Weiss

✓ An increasing number of physiological and morphological studies indicate that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains via nonarachnoidal pathways in several mammalian species. Ultrastructural tracer studies were undertaken to examine the orbital route for CSF absorption in the rabbit. At the termination of the optic nerve subarachnoid space, an area of connective tissue containing numerous small tortuous channels is present. Ferritin (molecular weight 400,000) infused into the ventricles at normal and increased intraventricular pressure was present in these channels by 15 minutes postinfusion, and subsequently reached the intraorbital connective tissue. Elevating the intraventricular pressure did not noticeably alter the morphological appearance of this region or change the gross distribution pattern of the ferritin. Ferritin did not penetrate the scleral barrier to reach the choriocapillaris, nor did it breach the arachnoid barrier layer proximal to the transitional zone at the optic subarachnoid space to reach the dura mater. These results are very similar to those described for the hamster orbital region and the rabbit cribriform region. These experiments support the concept that macromolecules exit the subarachnoid space at the termination of the optic nerve via open channels, and that no significant barrier to drainage of macromolecules in CSF is present at this location.

Restricted access

Stephanie S. Erlich, J. Gordon McComb, Shigeyo Hyman, and Martin H. Weiss

✓ Previous physiological studies indicate that the olfactory region serves as a major pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage into the lymphatic system. The present study was undertaken to determine the ultrastructural characteristics of this egress route. New Zealand White rabbits received a single bolus injection of the tracer ferritin (MW 400,000) into both lateral ventricles in such a manner as not to raise the intraventricular pressure above the normal level. The animals were sacrificed via intracardiac perfusion of fixative between less than 12 minutes and 4 hours following injection. The cribriform region was removed en bloc, decalcified, sectioned coronally, and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination.

The arachnoid, dura, and periosteum surrounding the fila olfactoria passing through the cribriform plate merge together and form the perineurium, which consists of multiple layers of loosely overlapping cells with widely separated junctions and few vesicles. The perineurium surrounding the olfactory filaments at the superficial submucosal level is only one cell thick. The subarachnoid space freely communicates with the perineural space surrounding each filament. No morphological barrier between the perineural space and the loose submucosal connective tissue was identified. Whether or not the perineurium was multi- or singlelayered, ferritin was noted in abundance between the loosely overlapping perineural cells and in the submucosal connective tissue. The distribution of ferritin at 12 minutes was similar to that at 4 hours; however, the quantity of ferritin was increased at 4 hours. These results indicate that no significant barrier to CSF drainage is present at the rabbit cribriform region and that CSF reaches the submucosal region rapidly via open pathways.

Restricted access

J. Gordon McComb, Hugh Davson, Shigeyo Hyman, and Martin H. Weiss

✓ Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing radioisotope iodinated (125I) serum albumin (RISA) and either blue dextran or indigo carmine was given to white New Zealand rabbits over 4 hours. In one group it was given by ventriculocisternal perfusion, in one by ventricular infusion, and in one by cisterna magna infusion. Blood was sampled continuously from the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) or intermittently from the systemic arterial circulation. Removal of CSF from the cisterna magna during the ventriculocisternal perfusion kept the intracranial pressure (ICP) at 0 to 5 torr, whereas ventricular or cisterna magna infusion raised the ICP to 20 to 30 torr and 15 to 20 torr, respectively. In the two groups with raised ICP, an increased concentration of RISA was present in the optic nerves, olfactory bulbs, episcleral tissue, and deep cervical lymph nodes; but this was not found in the group with normal ICP. In all three groups, the concentration of RISA in the SSS blood was the same as in the systemic arterial blood. The concentration gradient of RISA across the cerebral cortex was similar in both the ventriculocisternal perfusion and the ventricular infusion groups. With cisterna magna infusion, the concentration of RISA was the same on the cortical surface and less in the ventricles compared with the ventricular infusion. It is concluded that, with elevated ICP, CSF drained via pathways that are less evident under normal pressure. Drainage of CSF was similar irrespective of whether the infusion site was the ventricles or cisterna magna. It did not appear that acute dilatation of the ventricles during ventricular infusion compromised the subarachnoid space over the surface of the hemisphere, as the concentration of RISA on the convexities and in the SSS blood did not significantly differ between the groups. Transcortical bulk transfer of CSF was not evident with raised ICP.