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Open access

Jason Ku, Johnson Ku, Hsuan-Kan Chang, and Jau-Ching Wu


Since the beginning of the 21st century, cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) has been accepted as an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for surgical management of disc problems. The published clinical trials of CDA have included patients with radiculopathy or myelopathy caused by one- or two-level disc herniation at C3–7. However, it remains uncertain whether CDA is a viable option for C2–3 disc herniation.


In this report, a 52-year-old man presented with hand numbness, arm pain, and myelopathic symptoms that were refractory to medical treatment for more than 6 months. The magnetic resonance images demonstrated herniated discs at C2–3, C3–4, and C4–5, causing stenosis. There was no ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and the spine was mobile, so he received anterior discectomies with artificial disc replacement at each of the C2–3, C3–4, and C4–5 levels. The surgery went smoothly, and his neurological symptoms were promptly relieved. The postoperative radiographs at 24 months demonstrated a preserved range of motion at each level.


To date, this was the first report of CDA performed at C2–3, which also involved three consecutive levels of disc replacement. The report suggested that both C2–3 and three-consecutive-level CDA may be a viable option for cervical disc disease.

Restricted access

Hsuan-Kan Chang, Tun-Wei Hsu, Johnson Ku, Jason Ku, Jau-Ching Wu, Jiing-Feng Lirng, and Shih-Ming Hsu


Good bone quality is the key to avoiding osteoporotic fragility fractures and poor outcomes after lumbar instrumentation and fusion surgery. Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) screening is the current standard for evaluating osteoporosis, many patients lack DEXA measurements before undergoing lumbar spine surgery. The present study aimed to investigate the utility of using simple quantitative parameters generated with novel synthetic MRI to evaluate bone quality, as well as the correlations of these parameters with DEXA measurements.


This prospective study enrolled patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative disease who underwent DEXA and conventional and synthetic MRI. The quantitative parameters generated with synthetic MRI were T1 map, T2 map, T1 intensity, proton density (PD), and vertebral bone quality (VBQ) score, and these parameters were correlated with T-score of the lumbar spine.


There were 62 patients and 238 lumbar segments eligible for analysis. PD and VBQ score moderately correlated with T-score of the lumbar spine (r = −0.565 and −0.651, respectively; both p < 0.001). T1 intensity correlated fairly well with T-score (r = −0.411, p < 0.001). T1 and T2 correlated poorly with T-score. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated area under the curve values of 0.808 and 0.794 for detecting osteopenia/osteoporosis (T-score ≤ −1.0) and osteoporosis (T-score ≤ −2.5) with PD (both p < 0.001).


PD and T1 intensity values generated with synthetic MRI demonstrated significant correlation with T-score. PD has excellent ability for predicting osteoporosis and osteopenia.

Open access

Johnson Ku, Chieh-Yi Chen, Jason Ku, Hsuan-Kan Chang, Jau-Ching Wu, and Yu-Shu Yen


Nasal swab tests are one of the most essential tools for screening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The authors report a rare case of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the anterior skull base after repeated nasal swab tests for COVID-19, which was treated with endoscopic endonasal repair.


A 41-year-old man presented with clear continuous rhinorrhea through his left nostril for 5 days after repeated nasal swabbing for COVID-19. There were no obvious risk factors for spontaneous CSF leak. Computed tomography cisternography showed contrast accumulation in the left olfactory fossa and along the left nasal cavity. Such findings aligned with a preliminary diagnosis of CSF leakage through the left cribriform plate. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a CSF fistula between his left cribriform plate and superior nasal concha. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal repair. CSF rhinorrhea ceased after the surgery, and no recurrence was noted during the 12-week postoperative follow-up period.


Although rare, iatrogenic CSF leakage can be a serious complication following COVID-19 nasal swab tests, especially when infection may cause significant neurological sequelae. Healthcare providers should become familiar with nasal cavity anatomy and be well trained in performing nasal swab tests.