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Marian Gaballah, Phillip B. Storm, Deborah Rabinowitz, Rebecca N. Ichord, Robert W. Hurst, Ganesh Krishnamurthy, Marc S. Keller, Adeka McIntosh, and Anne Marie Cahill


The use of cerebral intraoperative angiography has been described in resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in adults. More recently, studies have described experiences with intraoperative angiography in a small number of children. However, data on the safety and clinical utility of intraoperative angiography in the pediatric population remains limited in comparison with available data in adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of cerebral intraoperative angiography in children undergoing AVM resection. The clinical utility of intraoperative angiography and procedure-related complications were evaluated.


A retrospective review was performed for all patients undergoing cerebral AVM resection with intraoperative angiography at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 2008 and 2012. Patient imaging and operative and medical notes were reviewed to evaluate for end points of the study. A total of 17 patients (8 males, 9 females) were identified, with a median age of 12.1 years (range 1.2–17.9 years) and median weight of 45.5 kg (range 12.1–78.9 kg).


A total of 21 intraoperative angiography procedures were performed for 18 AVM resections in 17 patients. The technical success rate was 94%. In 2 cases (11%), intraoperative angiography demonstrated a residual AVM, and repeat resections were performed. In both cases, no recurrent disease was noted on postoperative follow-up. One procedure-related complication (4.8%) occurred in 1 patient who was positioned prone. Recurrence to date was noted in 2 (14%) of the 14 cases with available postoperative follow-up at 3.5 and 4.7 months following resection with intraoperative angiography. The median follow-up time from intraoperative angiography to the most recent postoperative angiography was 1.1 years (range 4.3 months to 3.8 years).


Intraoperative angiography is an effective and safe adjunct for surgical management of cerebral AVMs in the pediatric population.