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Fabio Grassia, Andrew V. Poliakov, Sandra L. Poliachik, Kaitlyn Casimo, Seth D. Friedman, Hillary Shurtleff, Carlo Giussani, Edward J. Novotny Jr., Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Jason S. Hauptman

OBJECTIVE

Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) is a form of fMRI that allows for analysis of blood oxygen level–dependent signal changes within a task-free, resting paradigm. This technique has been shown to have efficacy in evaluating network connectivity changes with epilepsy. Presurgical data from patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy were evaluated using the fcMRI technique to define connectivity changes within and between the diseased and healthy temporal lobes using a within-subjects design.

METHODS

Using presurgical fcMRI data from pediatric patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy, the authors performed seed-based analyses within the diseased and healthy temporal lobes. Connectivity within and between temporal lobe seeds was measured and compared.

RESULTS

In the cohort studied, local ipsilateral temporal lobe connectivity was significantly increased on the diseased side compared to the healthy temporal lobe. Connectivity of the diseased side to the healthy side, on the other hand, was significantly reduced when compared to connectivity of the healthy side to the diseased temporal lobe. A statistically significant regression was observed when comparing the changes in local ipsilateral temporal lobe connectivity to the changes in inter–temporal lobe connectivity. A statistically significant difference was also noted in ipsilateral connectivity changes between patients with and those without mesial temporal sclerosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Using fcMRI, significant changes in ipsilateral temporal lobe and inter–temporal lobe connectivity can be appreciated in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Furthermore, fcMRI may have a role in the presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

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Diem Kieu Tran, Andrew V. Poliakov, Seth D. Friedman, Hannah E. Goldstein, Hillary A. Shurtleff, Katherine Bowen, Kristina E. Patrick, Molly Warner, Edward J. Novotny Jr., Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Jason S. Hauptman

OBJECTIVE

Assessing memory is often critical in surgical evaluation, although difficult to assess in young children and in patients with variable task abilities. While obtaining interpretable data from task-based functional MRI (fMRI) measures is common in compliant and awake patients, it is not known whether functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) data show equivalent results. If this were the case, it would have substantial clinical and research generalizability. To evaluate this possibility, the authors evaluated the concordance between fMRI and fcMRI data collected in a presurgical epilepsy cohort.

METHODS

Task-based fMRI data for autobiographical memory tasks and resting-state fcMRI data were collected in patients with epilepsy evaluated at Seattle Children’s Hospital between 2010 and 2017. To assess memory-related activation and laterality, signal change in task-based measures was computed as a percentage of the average blood oxygen level–dependent signal over the defined regions of interest. An fcMRI data analysis was performed using 1000 Functional Connectomes Project scripts based on Analysis of Functional NeuroImages and FSL (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Software Library) software packages. Lateralization indices (LIs) were estimated for activation and connectivity measures. The concordance between these two measures was evaluated using correlation and regression analysis.

RESULTS

In this epilepsy cohort studied, the authors observed concordance between fMRI activation and fcMRI connectivity, with an LI regression coefficient of 0.470 (R2 = 0.221, p = 0.00076).

CONCLUSIONS

Previously published studies have demonstrated fMRI and fcMRI overlap between measures of vision, attention, and language. In the authors’ clinical sample, task-based measures of memory and analogous resting-state mapping were similarly linked in pattern and strength. These results support the use of fcMRI methods as a proxy for task-based memory performance in presurgical patients, perhaps including those who are more limited in their behavioral compliance. Future investigations to extend these results will be helpful to explore how the magnitudes of effect are associated with neuropsychological performance and postsurgical behavioral changes.

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Diem Kieu Tran, Andrew V. Poliakov, Seth D. Friedman, Hannah E. Goldstein, Hillary A. Shurtleff, Katherine Bowen, Kristina E. Patrick, Molly Warner, Edward J. Novotny Jr., Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Jason S. Hauptman

OBJECTIVE

Assessing memory is often critical in surgical evaluation, although difficult to assess in young children and in patients with variable task abilities. While obtaining interpretable data from task-based functional MRI (fMRI) measures is common in compliant and awake patients, it is not known whether functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) data show equivalent results. If this were the case, it would have substantial clinical and research generalizability. To evaluate this possibility, the authors evaluated the concordance between fMRI and fcMRI data collected in a presurgical epilepsy cohort.

METHODS

Task-based fMRI data for autobiographical memory tasks and resting-state fcMRI data were collected in patients with epilepsy evaluated at Seattle Children’s Hospital between 2010 and 2017. To assess memory-related activation and laterality, signal change in task-based measures was computed as a percentage of the average blood oxygen level–dependent signal over the defined regions of interest. An fcMRI data analysis was performed using 1000 Functional Connectomes Project scripts based on Analysis of Functional NeuroImages and FSL (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Software Library) software packages. Lateralization indices (LIs) were estimated for activation and connectivity measures. The concordance between these two measures was evaluated using correlation and regression analysis.

RESULTS

In this epilepsy cohort studied, the authors observed concordance between fMRI activation and fcMRI connectivity, with an LI regression coefficient of 0.470 (R2 = 0.221, p = 0.00076).

CONCLUSIONS

Previously published studies have demonstrated fMRI and fcMRI overlap between measures of vision, attention, and language. In the authors’ clinical sample, task-based measures of memory and analogous resting-state mapping were similarly linked in pattern and strength. These results support the use of fcMRI methods as a proxy for task-based memory performance in presurgical patients, perhaps including those who are more limited in their behavioral compliance. Future investigations to extend these results will be helpful to explore how the magnitudes of effect are associated with neuropsychological performance and postsurgical behavioral changes.