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Loránd Erõss, Attila G. Bagó, László Entz, Dániel Fabó, Péter Halász, Attila Balogh, and Imre Fedorcsák

For localization of the epileptogenic zone in cases of focal epilepsy, detailed clinical investigations, imaging studies, and electrophysiological methods are used. If the noninvasive presurgical evaluation provides insufficient data, intracranial electrodes are necessary. Computed tomography and MR imaging techniques are the gold standard for localization of the postoperative position of the implanted intracranial electrode contacts. If the electrode strips are inserted through a bur hole, however, the exact localization of the electrode contacts on the patient's brain remains uncertain for the surgeon during insertion. Therefore, the authors developed a simple method to visualize the electrodes during the procedure. In this method they combine neuronavigation and intraoperative fluoroscopy for parallel visualization of the cortex, electrodes, and the navigation probe. The target region is searched with neuronavigation, a bur hole is made over the optimal entry point, and using real-time fluoroscopy the strip electrode is slid to the tip of the navigation probe, which was kept over the area of interest. At the authors' institution 26 strips in 8 patients have been inserted with this technique, and none of the strips had to be repositioned. There were no complications with this procedure and the prolongation of surgery time is acceptable. Compared to previously published electrode placement methods, this one enhances the accuracy of electrode placement at occipital, parietal, frontal, or interhemispheric regions as well. Intraoperative visualization of the electrodes with fluoroscopy combined with neuronavigation during positioning through a bur hole gives the neurosurgeon the ability to control the real position of the electrode over the gyri during the procedure.