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Alexander F. Haddad, Jacob S. Young, Jun Yeop Oh, Hideho Okada, and Manish K. Aghi

Low-grade gliomas (LGGs), which harbor an isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, have a better prognosis than their high-grade counterparts; nonetheless, they remain incurable and impart significant negative impacts on patients’ quality of life. Although immunotherapies represent a novel avenue of treatment for patients with LGGs, they have not yet been successful. Accurately selecting and evaluating immunotherapies requires a detailed understanding of LGG tumor immunology and the underlying tumor immune phenotype. A growing body of literature suggests that LGGs significantly differ in their immunology from high-grade gliomas, highlighting the importance of investigation into LGG immunology specifically. In this review, the authors aimed to discuss relevant research surrounding the LGG tumor immune microenvironment, including immune cell infiltration, tumor immunogenicity, checkpoint molecule expression, the impact of an IDH mutation, and implications for immunotherapies, while also briefly touching on current immunotherapy trials and future directions for LGG immunology research.

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Alexander F. Haddad, Michael M. Safaee, Matheus P. Pereira, Jun Yeop Oh, Darryl Lau, Lee A. Tan, Aaron J. Clark, Dean Chou, Praveen V. Mummaneni, and Christopher P. Ames


Spinal meningiomas pose unique challenges based on the location of their dural attachment. However, there is a paucity of literature investigating the role of dural attachment location on outcomes after posterior-based approach for spinal meningioma resection. The aim of this study was to investigate any differences in outcomes between dural attachment location subgroups in spinal meningioma patients who underwent posterior-based resection.


This was a single-institution review of patients who underwent resection of a spinal meningioma from 1997 to 2017. Surgical, oncological, and neurological outcomes were compared between patients with varying dural attachments. Multivariate analysis was utilized.


A total of 141 patients were identified. The mean age was 62 years, and 110 women were included. The sites of dural attachments were as follows: 16 (11.3%) dorsal, 31 (22.0%) dorsolateral, 17 (12.1%) lateral, 40 (28.4%) ventral, and 37 (26.2%) ventrolateral. Most meningiomas were WHO grade I (92.2%) and in the thoracic spine (61.0%). All patients underwent a posterior approach for tumor resection. There were no differences between subgroups in terms of largest diameter of tumor resected (p = 0.201), gross-total resection (GTR) or subtotal resection (p = 0.362), Simpson grade of resection, perioperative complications (p = 0.116), long-term neurological deficit (p = 0.100), or postoperative radiation therapy (p = 0.971). Cervical spine location was associated with reduced incidence of GTR (OR 0.271, 95% CI 0.108–0.684, p = 0.006) on multivariate analysis. The overall incidence of recurrence/progression was 4.6%, with no difference (p = 0.800) between subgroups. Similarly, the average length of follow-up was 28.1 months, with no difference between subgroups (p = 0.413).


Posterior-based approaches for resection of spinal meningiomas are safe and effective, regardless of dural attachment location, with similar surgical, oncological, and neurological outcomes. Comparison of long-term recurrence rates between dural attachment subgroups is required.