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Michael Lumintang Loe, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Ricardo A. Domingo, Johan Heemskerk, Shashwat Tripathi, Bernard R. Bendok, Mohamad Bydon, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, and Kingsley Abode-Iyamah

OBJECTIVE

The authors assessed the prognostic significance of various clinical and radiographic characteristics, including C1–C2 facet malalignment, in terms of surgical outcomes after foramen magnum decompression of adult Chiari malformation type I.

METHODS

The electronic medical records of 273 symptomatic patients with Chiari malformation type I who were treated with foramen magnum decompression, C1 laminectomy, and duraplasty at Mayo Clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative Neurological Scoring System scores were compared using the Friedman test. Bivariate analysis was conducted to identify the preoperative variables that correlated with the patient Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale (CCOS) scores. Multiple linear regression analysis was subsequently performed using the variables with p < 0.05 on the bivariate analysis to check for independent associations with the outcome measures. Statistical software SPSS version 25.0 was used for the data analysis. Significance was defined as p < 0.05 for all analyses.

RESULTS

Fifty-two adult patients with preoperative clinical and radiological data and a minimum follow-up of 12 months were included. Motor deficits, syrinx, and C1–C2 facet malalignment were found to have significant negative associations with the CCOS score at the 1- to 3-month follow-up (p < 0.05), while at the 9- to 12-month follow-up only swallowing function and C1–C2 facet malalignment were significantly associated with the CCOS score (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that syrinx presence and C1–C2 facet malalignment were independently associated with the CCOS score at the 1- to 3-month follow-up. Swallowing function and C1–C2 facet malalignment were found to be independently associated with the CCOS score at the 9- to 12-month follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

The observed results in this pilot study suggest a significant negative correlation between C1–C2 facet malalignment and clinical outcomes evaluated by the CCOS score at 1–3 months and 9–12 months postoperatively. Prospective studies are needed to further validate the prognostic value of C1–C2 facet malalignment and the potential role of atlantoaxial fixation as part of the treatment.

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Ricardo A. Domingo, Gaetano De Biase, Ramon Navarro, Jaime L. Martinez Santos, Gabriella A. Rivas, Vivek Gupta, David Miller, Bernard R. Bendok, Waleed Brinjikji, W. Christopher Fox, Thien J. Huynh, and Rabih G. Tawk

OBJECTIVE

Available data on management of sacral arteriovenous fistulas (sAVFs) are limited to individual case reports and small series. Management includes observation, endovascular embolization, or surgical ligation, with no clear guidelines on the optimal treatment modality. The authors’ objective was to report their multiinstitutional experience with management of sAVF patients, including clinical and radiographic characteristics and postprocedural outcomes.

METHODS

The electronic medical records of patients with a diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous fistula treated from January 2004 to December 2019 at the authors’ institutions were reviewed, and data were summarized using descriptive statistics, including percentage and count for categorical data, median as a measure of central tendency for continuous variables, and interquartile range (IQR) as a measure of dispersion.

RESULTS

A total of 26 patients with sAVFs were included. The median (IQR) age was 65 (57–73) years, and 73% (n = 19) of patients were male. Lower-extremity weakness was the most common presenting symptom (n = 24 [92%]), and half the patients (n = 13 [50%]) reported bowel and bladder sphincter dysfunction. The median (IQR) time from symptom onset to treatment was 12 (5.25–26.25) months. Radiographically, all patients had T2 hyperintensity at the level of the conus medullaris (CM) (n = 26 [100%]). Intradural flow voids were identified in 85% (n = 22) of patients. The majority of the lesions had a single identifiable arterial feeder (n = 19 [73%]). The fistula was located most commonly at the S1 level (n = 13 [50%]). The site where the draining vein connects to the pial venous plexus was seen predominantly at the lumbar level (n = 16 [62%]). In total, 29 procedures were performed: 10 open surgeries and 19 endovascular embolization procedures. Complete occlusion was achieved in 90% (n = 9) of patients after open surgery and 79% (n = 15) after endovascular embolization. Motor improvement was seen in 68% of patients (n = 15), and bladder and bowel function improved in 9 patients (41%). At last follow-up, 73% (n = 16) of patients had either resolution or improvement of the pretreatment intramedullary T2 signal hyperintensity.

CONCLUSIONS

T2 hyperintensity of the CM and a dilated filum terminale vein are consistent radiographic signs of sAVF, and delayed presentation is common. Complete occlusion was achieved in almost all patients after surgery, and endovascular embolization was effective in 70% of the patients. Further studies are needed to determine the best treatment modality based on case-specific characteristics.

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Andres Ramos-Fresnedo, Ricardo A. Domingo, Jesus E. Sanchez-Garavito, Carlos Perez-Vega, Oluwaseun O. Akinduro, Mark E. Jentoft, Sujay A. Vora, Paul D. Brown, Alyx B. Porter, Bernard R. Bendok, Michael J. Link, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Daniel M. Trifiletti, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, and Wendy J. Sherman

OBJECTIVE

Multiple meningiomas (MMs) occur in as many as 18% of patients with meningioma, and data on progression-free survival (PFS) are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the influence of the number of lesions and clinical characteristics on PFS in patients with WHO grade I meningiomas.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all adults diagnosed with a meningioma at their three main sites from January 2009 to May 2020. Progression was considered the time from diagnosis until radiographic growth of the originally resected meningioma. A secondary analysis was performed to evaluate the time of diagnosis until the time to second intervention (TTSI). Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess whether the number of lesions or any associated variables (age, sex, race, radiation treatment, tumor location, and extent of resection) had a significant impact on PFS and TTSI.

RESULTS

Eight hundred thirty-eight patients were included. Use of a log-rank test to evaluate PFS and TTSI between a single and multiple lesions showed a significantly shorter progression for MM (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed significantly inferior PFS on MM compared to a single lesion (hazard ratio [HR] 2.262, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.392–3.677, p = 0.001) and a significantly inferior TTSI for patients with MM when compared to patients with a single meningioma (HR 2.377, 95% CI 1.617–3.494, p = 0.001). By testing the number of meningiomas as a continuous variable, PFS was significantly inferior for each additional meningioma (HR 1.350, 95% CI 1.074–1.698, p = 0.010) and TTSI was significantly inferior as well (HR 1.428, 95% CI 1.189–1.716, p < 0.001). African American patients had an inferior PFS when compared to non-Hispanic White patients (HR 3.472, 95% CI 1.083–11.129, p = 0.036).

CONCLUSIONS

The PFS of meningiomas appears to be influenced by the number of lesions present. Patients with MM also appear to be more prone to undergoing a second intervention for progressive disease. Hence, a closer follow-up may be warranted in patients who present with multiple lesions. These results show a decreased PFS for each additional lesion present, as well as a shorter PFS for MM compared to a single lesion. When assessing associated risk factors, African American patients showed an inferior PFS, whereas older age and adjuvant therapy with radiation showed an improved PFS.

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Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Ricardo A. Domingo, Shashwat Tripathi, Gaetano De Biase, Desmond Brown, Oluwaseun O. Akinduro, Andres Ramos-Fresnedo, David S. Sabsevitz, Bernard R. Bendok, Wendy Sherman, Ian F. Parney, Mark E. Jentoft, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Fredric B. Meyer, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, and Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ goal was to use a multicenter, observational cohort study to determine whether supramarginal resection (SMR) of FLAIR-hyperintense tumor beyond the contrast-enhanced (CE) area influences the overall survival (OS) of patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase–wild-type (IDH-wt) glioblastoma after gross-total resection (GTR).

METHODS

The medical records of 888 patients aged ≥ 18 years who underwent resection of GBM between January 2011 and December 2017 were reviewed. Volumetric measurements of the CE tumor and surrounding FLAIR-hyperintense tumor were performed, clinical variables were obtained, and associations with OS were analyzed.

RESULTS

In total, 101 patients with newly diagnosed IDH-wt GBM who underwent GTR of the CE tumor met the inclusion criteria. In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 65 years (HR 1.97; 95% CI 1.01–2.56; p < 0.001) and contact with the lateral ventricles (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.13–1.78; p = 0.025) were associated with shorter OS, but preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status ≥ 70 (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27–0.89; p = 0.006), MGMT promotor methylation (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.52–0.99; p = 0.044), and increased percentage of SMR (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98–0.99; p = 0.02) were associated with longer OS. Finally, 20% SMR was the minimum percentage associated with beneficial OS (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.35–0.89; p = 0.01), but > 60% SMR had no significant influence (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.45–1.21; p = 0.234).

CONCLUSIONS

SMR is associated with improved OS in patients with IDH-wt GBM who undergo GTR of CE tumor. At least 20% SMR of the CE tumor was associated with beneficial OS, but greater than 60% SMR had no significant influence on OS.

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Shashwat Tripathi, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Ricardo A. Domingo, Gaetano De Biase, Desmond Brown, Oluwaseun O. Akinduro, Andres Ramos-Fresnedo, Wendy Sherman, Vivek Gupta, Erik H. Middlebrooks, David S. Sabsevitz, Alyx B. Porter, Joon H. Uhm, Bernard R. Bendok, Ian Parney, Fredric B. Meyer, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Kristin R. Swanson, and Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa

OBJECTIVE

Recent studies have proposed resection of the T2 FLAIR hyperintensity beyond the T1 contrast enhancement (supramarginal resection [SMR]) for IDH–wild-type glioblastoma (GBM) to further improve patients’ overall survival (OS). GBMs have significant variability in tumor cell density, distribution, and infiltration. Advanced mathematical models based on patient-specific radiographic features have provided new insights into GBM growth kinetics on two important parameters of tumor aggressiveness: proliferation rate (ρ) and diffusion rate (D). The aim of this study was to investigate OS of patients with IDH–wild-type GBM who underwent SMR based on a mathematical model of cell distribution and infiltration profile (tumor invasiveness profile).

METHODS

Volumetric measurements were obtained from the selected regions of interest from pre- and postoperative MRI studies of included patients. The tumor invasiveness profile (proliferation/diffusion [ρ/D] ratio) was calculated using the following formula: ρ/D ratio = (4π/3)2/3 × (6.106/[VT2 1/1 − VT1 1/1])2, where VT2 and VT1 are the preoperative FLAIR and contrast-enhancing volumes, respectively. Patients were split into subgroups based on their tumor invasiveness profiles. In this analysis, tumors were classified as nodular, moderately diffuse, or highly diffuse.

RESULTS

A total of 101 patients were included. Tumors were classified as nodular (n = 34), moderately diffuse (n = 34), and highly diffuse (n = 33). On multivariate analysis, increasing SMR had a significant positive correlation with OS for moderately and highly diffuse tumors (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–0.99; p = 0.02; and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99; p = 0.04, respectively). On threshold analysis, OS benefit was seen with SMR from 10% to 29%, 10% to 59%, and 30% to 90%, for nodular, moderately diffuse, and highly diffuse, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The impact of SMR on OS for patients with IDH–wild-type GBM is influenced by the degree of tumor invasiveness. The authors’ results show that increasing SMR is associated with increased OS in patients with moderate and highly diffuse IDH–wild-type GBMs. When grouping SMR into 10% intervals, this benefit was seen for all tumor subgroups, although for nodular tumors, the maximum beneficial SMR percentage was considerably lower than in moderate and highly diffuse tumors.