Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the superiority of endovascular therapy (EVT) compared to microsurgery (MS) for ruptured aneurysms suitable for treatment or when therapy is broadly offered to all presenting aneurysms; however, wide neck aneurysms (WNAs) are a challenging subset that require more advanced techniques and warrant further investigation. Herein, the authors sought to investigate a prospective, multicenter WNA registry using rigorous outcome assessments and compare EVT and MS using propensity score analysis (PSA).
Untreated, ruptured, saccular WNAs were included in the analysis. A WNA was defined as having a neck ≥ 4 mm or a dome/neck ratio (DNR) < 2. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 1 year posttreatment, as assessed by blinded research nurses (good outcome: mRS scores 0–2) and compared using PSA.
The analysis included 87 ruptured aneurysms: 55 in the EVT cohort and 32 in the MS cohort. Demographics were similar in the two cohorts, including Hunt and Hess grade (p = 0.144) and modified Fisher grade (p = 0.475). WNA type inclusion criteria were similar in the two cohorts, with the most common type having a DNR < 2 (EVT 60.0% vs MS 62.5%). More anterior communicating artery aneurysms (27.3% vs 18.8%) and posterior circulation aneurysms (18.2% vs 0.0%) were treated with EVT, whereas more middle cerebral artery aneurysms were treated with MS (34.4% vs 18.2%, p = 0.025). Within the EVT cohort, 43.6% underwent stand-alone coiling, 50.9% balloon-assisted coiling, 3.6% stent-assisted coiling, and 1.8% flow diversion. The 1-year mRS score was assessed in 81 patients (93.1%), and the primary outcome demonstrated no increased risk for a poor outcome with MS compared to EVT (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.13–1.45, p = 0.177). The durability of MS was higher, as evidenced by retreatment rates of 12.7% and 0% for EVT and MS, respectively (p = 0.04).
EVT and MS had similar clinical outcomes at 1 year following ruptured WNA treatment. Because of their challenging anatomy, WNAs may represent a population in which EVT’s previously demonstrated superiority for ruptured aneurysm treatment is less relevant. Further investigation into the treatment of ruptured WNAs is warranted.