Long-term follow-up of intensive chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and reduced-field irradiation for intracranial germ cell tumor

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OBJECTIVE

The authors analyzed the efficacy of intensive chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and reduced-field irradiation for intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) and evaluated the long-term late effects caused by chemoradiotherapy (CRT).

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective study. The subjects were 24 patients who received CRT between April 1994 and April 2015. After surgery, intensive chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and reduced-field irradiation was administered. For those with pure germinoma, who comprised the “good prognosis” group, five courses of conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDC) were administered, and radiotherapy (24 Gy) was applied to the whole ventricle. For all others, defined as the “intermediate and poor prognosis” group, two or three courses of CDC and high-dose chemotherapy were administered with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and radiotherapy (24–30 Gy) applied to the whole ventricle or a larger field with or without local boost irradiation (20 Gy), which was applied as needed.

RESULTS

The median period of follow-up was 112.5 months (range 28–261 months), and the 5-/10-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 100%/83.5% and 91.3%/86.5%, respectively. The 5-/10-year overall survival rates determined based on the histological subtypes were 100%/100% for pure germinoma and 93.8%/78.7% for others, respectively. The late toxicities were as follows: endocrine disorder (33% in pure germinoma, 56% in others), involuntary movements (17% in pure germinoma, 39% in others), ear and labyrinth disorders (17% in pure germinoma, 33% in others), and psychiatric disorders (0% in pure germinoma, 33% in others). Nineteen of 24 patients underwent MRI (T2*- or susceptibility-weighted imaging) after radiotherapy, and 16 (84%) of those 19 patients had microbleeds detected, while 2 (10.5%) had radiation-induced cavernous vascular malformations detected.

CONCLUSIONS

Intensive chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and reduced-field irradiation for intracranial GCTs had the same outcome as that reported in the literature, but late adverse effects after treatment were observed. Almost all of the complications were relatively mild but had the potential to lead to psychiatric disorders and intracranial hemorrhaging.

ABBREVIATIONS AFP = alpha-fetoprotein; CDC = conventional-dose chemotherapy; CMB = cerebral microbleed; CRT = chemoradiotherapy; CSI = craniospinal irradiation; EP = etoposide and cisplatin; GCT = germ cell tumor; HCG = human chorionic gonadotropin; HDC = high-dose chemotherapy; ICE = ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide; NGGCT = nongerminomatous GCT; OS = overall survival; PBSCT = peripheral blood stem cell transplantation; PFS = progression-free survival; RICM = radiation-induced cavernous malformation; STGC = syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell; SWI = susceptibility-weighted imaging.

Article Information

Correspondence Akinori Takada: Mie University Hospital, Tsu City, Mie, Japan. a-takada@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online November 23, 2018; DOI: 10.3171/2018.9.PEDS18181.

Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

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    Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the OS (left) and PFS (right) rates for all 24 patients. Dashed lines represent 95% confidence intervals.

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    Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the OS rates according to the histological subtype (left) and primary lesion (right).

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