Can ventricular 3D ultrasound of neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus inform on the need for a ventriculoperitoneal shunt?

Priyanka RoyDepartments of Medical Biophysics,
Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London; and

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 MSc, MBBS
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Marcus LoClinical Neurological Science, University of Western Ontario, London;

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 BSc
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David TessierDepartments of Medical Biophysics,
Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London; and

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 PhD
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Jessica KishimotoDepartments of Medical Biophysics,
Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London; and

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 PhD
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Soume BhattacharyaDepartment of Pediatrics, Children’s Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada

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 MD
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Roy EaglesonElectrical and Computer Engineering,

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 PhD, PEng
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Aaron FensterDepartments of Medical Biophysics,
Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London; and

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Sandrine de RibaupierreDepartments of Medical Biophysics,
Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada
Clinical Neurological Science, University of Western Ontario, London;

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OBJECTIVE

Some neonates born prematurely with intraventricular hemorrhage develop posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and require lifelong treatment to divert the flow of CSF. Early prediction of the eventual need for a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is difficult, and early discussions with families are based on statistics and the grade of hemorrhage. The authors hypothesize that change in ventricular volume during ventricular taps that is measured with repeated 3D ultrasound (3D US) imaging of the lateral ventricles could be used to assess the risk of the future requirement of a VPS.

METHODS

A total of 92 neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage who were treated in the NICU were recruited between April 2012 and November 2019. Only patients who required ventricular taps (VTs) were included in this study, resulting in the analysis of 19 patients with a total of 61 VTs. Among them, 14 patients were treated with a VPS, and in 5 patients the hydrocephalus resolved spontaneously. Parameters studied were total ventricular volume measured with 3D US, ventricular volume change after VT, the ratio between volume reduction and tap amount, the difference between tap amount and volume reduction after tap, the average tap amount, the average number of days between taps, pre-tap head circumference, and reduction in head circumference after tap.

RESULTS

Statistically significant differences were found in ventricular volume reduction after tap (p = 0.007), the ratio between volume reduction and tap amount (p = 0.03), the difference between tap amount and volume reduction after tap (p = 0.05), and the interval of days between taps (p = 0.0115).

CONCLUSIONS

Measuring with 3D US before and after VT can be a useful tool for quantifying ventricular volume. The findings in this study showed that neonates who experience a large reduction of ventricular volume after VT are more likely to be treated with a shunt than are neonates who experience a small reduction.

ABBREVIATIONS

HC = head circumference; IVH = intraventricular hemorrhage; LP = lumbar puncture; PHH = posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus; TVV = total ventricular volume; VPS = ventriculoperitoneal shunt; VT = ventricular tap; 3D US = 3D ultrasound.
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