Safety of pediatric cerebral angiography

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  • 1 Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis;
  • | 2 Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis; and
  • | 3 Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
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OBJECTIVE

Catheter-based cerebral angiography is commonly used for neurovascular diagnosis in children. In this work, the authors aimed to quantify the complication rate of cerebral angiography in children, characterize these complications, and identify risk factors for complications.

METHODS

Relevant clinical data were retrospectively obtained for 587 consecutive cerebral angiography procedures performed in 390 children from March 2002 to March 2020. Complications were categorized as neurological or nonneurological, and severity was graded using a standard schema. Incidences of complications were reported as point estimates. Associations between risk factors and complications were characterized in univariate analysis using the two-tailed Fisher exact test and in multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression with bidirectional elimination based on the Akaike information criterion. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, statistical significance was corrected for multiple comparisons using the Benjamini-Hochberg method.

RESULTS

Complications occurred in 6.5% of procedures, including neurological complications in 1.9% and nonneurological complications in 4.8%. Permanent deficits occurred in only 0.2% of cases. Overall, 0.5% of procedures resulted in major complications, while 6.0% resulted in minor complications. Female sex and a history of hypertension or ischemic stroke were associated with an increased risk of complications, while femoral artery access was associated with a decreased risk of complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Pediatric cerebral angiography was shown to have a low rate of major or permanent complications. Children who were female and those with a history of hypertension or ischemic stroke were shown to be at higher risk of complications, while the use of femoral access carried a lower risk of complications.

ABBREVIATIONS

AVM = arteriovenous malformation.

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