Clinical utility of enhanced recovery after surgery pathways in pediatric spinal deformity surgery: systematic review of the literature

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  • 1 Departments of Neurosurgery and
  • 2 Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
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OBJECTIVES

More than 7500 children undergo surgery for scoliosis each year, at an estimated annual cost to the health system of $1.1 billion. There is significant interest among patients, parents, providers, and payors in identifying methods for delivering quality outcomes at lower costs. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols have been suggested as one possible solution. Here the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature describing the clinical and economic benefits of ERAS protocols in pediatric spinal deformity surgery.

METHODS

The authors identified all English-language articles on ERAS protocol use in pediatric spinal deformity surgery by using the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, EMBASE, CINAHL, and OVID MEDLINE. Quantitative analyses of comparative articles using random effects were performed for the following clinical outcomes: 1) length of stay (LOS); 2) complication rate; 3) wound infection rate; 4) 30-day readmission rate; 5) reoperation rate; and 6) postoperative pain scores.

RESULTS

Of 950 articles reviewed, 7 were included in the qualitative analysis and 6 were included in the quantitative analysis. The most frequently cited benefits of ERAS protocols were shorter LOS, earlier urinary catheter removal, and earlier discontinuation of patient-controlled analgesia pumps. Quantitative analyses showed ERAS protocols to be associated with shorter LOS (mean difference −1.12 days; 95% CI −1.51, −0.74; p < 0.001), fewer postoperative complications (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.20, 0.68; p = 0.001), and lower pain scores on postoperative day (POD) 0 (mean −0.92; 95% CI −1.29, −0.56; p < 0.001) and POD 2 (−0.61; 95% CI −0.75, −0.47; p < 0.001). There were no differences in reoperation rate or POD 1 pain scores. ERAS-treated patients had a trend toward higher 30-day readmission rates and earlier discontinuation of patient-controlled analgesia (both p = 0.06). Insufficient data existed to reach a conclusion about cost differences.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this systematic review suggest that ERAS protocols may shorten hospitalizations, reduce postoperative complication rates, and reduce postoperative pain scores in children undergoing scoliosis surgery. Publication biases exist, and therefore larger, prospective, multicenter data are needed to validate these results.

ABBREVIATIONS AIS = adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; ERAS = enhanced recovery after surgery; LOS = length of stay; NMS = neuromuscular scoliosis; PCA = patient-controlled analgesia; POD = postoperative day; PRO = patient-reported outcome; PT = physical therapy.

Supplementary Materials

    • pdf Supplementary Figs. 1–9 (PDF 465 KB)

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Contributor Notes

Correspondence Daniel M. Sciubba: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. dsciubb1@jhmi.edu.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online November 20, 2020; DOI: 10.3171/2020.7.PEDS20444.

Disclosures Dr. Sponseller is a consultant for Depuy Synthes, OrthoPediatrics, and Pacira. He reports receiving royalties from DePuy Synthes and Globus Medical. Dr. Sciubba is a consultant for Baxter, DePuy Synthes, Globus Medical, K2M, Medtronic, NuVasive, and Stryker.

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