Intracerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are high-flow collections of abnormal vessels and a common cause of pediatric intracranial hemorrhage. There are few treatment options available for AVMs not amenable to surgical resection, endovascular embolization, radiosurgery, or multimodality treatment. The authors sought to review the molecular and genetic pathways that have been implicated in the formation of AVMs, focusing on the possibility of medically targeting these pathways in the treatment of AVMs. In the novel case presented here, a pediatric patient who was diagnosed with an intracranial AVM unamenable to conventional treatments underwent alternative treatment with molecular pathway inhibitors.
ABBREVIATIONSAKT = protein kinase b; AVM = arteriovenous malformation; ERK = extracellular signal–regulated kinase; MAPK = mitogen-activated protein kinase; MEK = mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; mTOR = mammalian target of rapamycin; PI3K = phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PLCϒ = phospholipase C ϒ; TIA = transient ischemic attack; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGFR = VEGF receptor.
Correspondence Sandi Lam: Texas Children’s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. email@example.com.INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online October 4, 2019; DOI: 10.3171/2019.7.PEDS1976.Disclosures Dr. Kan reports being a consultant for Stryker Neurovascular and Cerenovus.
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