Risk factors associated with conversion of an Ommaya reservoir to a permanent cerebrospinal fluid shunt in preterm posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus

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OBJECTIVE

A considerable percentage of preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus initially managed with an Ommaya reservoir require a permanent CSF shunt. The objective of the study was to analyze possible risk factors associated with the need for converting an Ommaya reservoir to a permanent shunt.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of premature infants weighing 1500 g or less with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (Papile grades III and IV) managed with an Ommaya reservoir at their institution between 2002 and 2017.

RESULTS

Forty-six patients received an Ommaya reservoir. Five patients (10.9%) were excluded due to intraventricular infection during management with an Ommaya reservoir. Average gestational age and weight for the remaining 41 patients was 27 ± 1.8 weeks and 987 ± 209 grams, respectively. Thirty patients required a permanent shunt and 11 patients did not require a permanent shunt. The conversion rate from an Ommaya reservoir to a permanent shunt was 76.1%. Symptomatic persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was more frequent in the nonpermanent shunt group than in the shunt group (88.9% vs 50%, p = 0.04). The need for extraction of more than 10 ml/kg per day of CSF through the Ommaya reservoir was lower in the nonpermanent shunt group than in the shunt group (9.1% vs 51.7%, p = 0.015). CSF lactate was lower in the nonpermanent group than in the shunt group (mean 2.48 mg/dl vs 3.19 mg/dl; p = 0.004). A cutoff value of ≥ 2.8 mg/dl CSF lactate predicted the need for a permanent shunt with sensitivity and specificity of 82.4% and 80%, respectively. There were no significant differences in gestational age, sex, weight, Papile grade, ventricular index, or other biochemical markers. After the multivariate analysis, only CSF lactate ≥ 2.8 mg/dl was associated with a higher conversion rate to a permanent shunt.

CONCLUSIONS

This study showed that a high level of CSF lactate, absence of symptomatic PDA, and a higher CSF extraction requirement were associated with a higher likelihood of implanting a permanent CSF shunt. The authors believe these findings should be considered in future studies.

ABBREVIATIONS CI = confidence interval; GMH = germinal matrix hemorrhage; IVH = intraventricular hemorrhage; PDA = persistent ductus arteriosus; OR = odds ratio; RBC = red blood cell; ROC = receiver operating characteristic.
Article Information

Contributor Notes

Correspondence Alexis Palpan Flores: La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. alexispalpan@hotmail.com.INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online January 17, 2020; DOI: 10.3171/2019.11.PEDS19320.Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.
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