Of Harvey Cushing's many contributions to neurosurgery, one of the least documented is his early surgical intervention in children and his pioneering efforts to establish pediatric neurosurgery as a subspecialty. Between 1896 and 1912 Cushing conducted nearly 200 operations in children at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. A review of his records suggests that the advances he made in neurosurgery were significantly influenced by his experience with children. In this historical article, the authors describe Cushing's treatment of 6 children, in all of whom Cushing established a diagnosis of “birth hemorrhage.” By reviewing Cushing's operative indications, techniques, and outcomes, the authors aim to understand the philosophy of his pediatric neurosurgical management and how this informed his development of neurosurgery as a new specialty.
LittleWJ: On the influence of abnormal parturition, difficult labours, premature birth, and asphyxia neonatorum on the mental and physical condition of the child, especially in relation to deformities. Trans Obstet Soc London3:293–3441861
PendletonCZaidiHAJalloGCohen-GadolAAQuiñones-HinojosaA: Harvey Cushing's use of a transplanted human vein to treat hydrocephalus in an infant in the early 1900s. Historical vignette. J Neurosurg Pediatr5:423–4272010