Etiology and cranial CT scan profile of nontumoral hydrocephalus in a tertiary black African hospital

Clinical article

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Object

Hydrocephalus is a common condition in the pediatric population. The cause of hydrocephalus, Evans ratio, ventricular index, and cerebral mantle thickness are some of the factors associated with poor surgical outcome. This study was conducted to evaluate the profile of these factors in the authors' patient population.

Methods

The authors conducted a prospective study from the August 1, 2006, to May 30, 2010. The consecutive patients were all 6 years of age or younger. The demographic information, cause of hydrocephalus, and cranial computerized measurements were taken (including widths of the frontal/occipital horns, third ventricle, and cerebral mantle thickness) and entered into the procedural forms.

Results

One hundred thirty-seven patients presented to the unit over the stipulated period. The male/female ratio was 1.1:1. The median age at presentation was 4 months (mean 7.3 months, range 4 days to 6 years). Myelomeningocele-associated hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and postmeningitic hydrocephalus accounted for 30.7%, 22.6%, and 17.5%, respectively, of the cases. The mean Evans ratio was 0.56 (range 0.43–0.70), the mean ventricular index was 197.18 (range 135.0–245.3), and the mean cerebral mantle was 10.8 mm (10–14 mm).

Conclusions

This study shows that the congenital form of hydrocephalus is the predominant variety in the authors' population. Myelomeningocele-associated hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, Dandy-Walker malformation, and postmeningitic hydrocephalus are common causes of hydrocephalus.

Article Information

Address correspondence to: Olufemi Idowu, M.B.B.S., M.Sc., F.W.A.C.S., Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. email: oeidowu412@yahoo.com.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

Headings

Figures

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    Causes of hydrocephalus in children. AS = aqueductal stenosis; DW = Dandy-Walker syndrome; EH = external hydrocephalus; FM = foramen of Monro atresia; IV = intraventricular hemorrhage; MA = myelomeningocele-associated hydrocephalus; PM = postmeningitic hydrocephalus; PT = posttraumatic hydrocephalus.

  • View in gallery

    Age of patients compared with etiology of hydrocephalus. FA = foramen of Monro atresia; IVH = intraventricular hemorrhage; MM = myelomeningocele.

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