Long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes after pial pericranial dural revascularization: a hybrid surgical technique for treatment of anterior cerebral territory ischemia in pediatric moyamoya disease

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  • 1 Departments of Neurosurgery and
  • | 2 Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; and
  • | 3 University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont
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OBJECTIVE

Isolated anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory ischemia in pediatric moyamoya disease (MMD) is rare but has been increasingly recognized, particularly in children manifesting progression of disease in a delayed fashion after middle cerebral artery revascularization surgery. Surgical treatment is complicated by limited graft choices, with the small number of case series largely focused on complex, higher-risk operations (omental flap transfers, large interhemispheric rotational grafts); direct bypass (often untenable in children due to vessel size); or, alternatively, the technically simpler method of multiple burr holes (of limited efficacy outside of infants). Faced with the problem of a growing cohort of pediatric patients with MMD that could benefit from anterior cerebral revascularization, the authors sought to develop a solution that was specifically designed for children and that would be lower risk than the more complex approaches adapted from adult populations but more effective than simple burr holes. In this study, the authors aimed to describe the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of a novel approach of pial pericranial dural (PiPeD) revascularization, building on the principles of pial synangiosis but unique in using the pericranium and the dura mater as the primary vascular supply, and employing a larger craniotomy with arachnoid dissection to provide robust full-territory revascularization in all ages with reduced risk relative to more complex procedures.

METHODS

The medical records of all pediatric patients with MMD who presented at a single center between July 2009 and August 2019 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with MMD with anterior cerebral territory ischemia. Clinical characteristics, surgical indications, operative techniques, and long-term clinical and radiographic follow-up data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 25 operations (5.6% of total procedures) were performed in 21 patients (mean age 9.4 years [range 1–16.5 years]; 12 female and 9 male). Almost one-third of the patients had syndromic associations, with no familial cases. Complications included 1 patient (4.7%) with a superficial infection, with no postoperative strokes, hemorrhage, seizures, or deaths. Long-term follow-up was available in 18 of 21 patients (mean 24.9 months [range 4–60 months]). Radiographic engraftment was present in 90.9% (20/22 hemispheres), and no new strokes were evident on MRI on long-term follow-up, despite radiographic progression of the disease.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of the pericranium and the dura mater for indirect revascularization provided robust vascularized graft with great flexibility in location and high potential for engraftment, which may obviate more complex and higher-risk operations for ACA territory ischemia. Long-term follow-up demonstrated that PiPeD revascularization conferred durable, long-term radiographic and clinical protection from stroke in pediatric patients with MMD. Based on the results of the current study, the PiPeD technique can be considered an additional tool to the armamentarium of indirect revascularization procedures in select pediatric patients with MMD.

ABBREVIATIONS

ACA = anterior cerebral artery; AIS = acute ischemic stroke; DSA = digital subtraction angiography; ECA = external carotid artery; ICA = internal carotid artery; MCA = middle cerebral artery; MMD = moyamoya disease; PiPeD = pial pericranial dural; STA = superficial temporal artery; TIA = transient ischemic attack.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figs. 1 and 2 (PDF 627 KB)

Illustration from Seaman et al. (pp 260–267). Copyright Jane Whitney. Published with permission.

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Contributor Notes

Correspondence Edward R. Smith: Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. edward.smith@childrens.harvard.edu.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online July 2, 2021; DOI: 10.3171/2021.2.PEDS20743.

Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

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