Neuropsychological functioning following surgery for pediatric low-grade glioma: a prospective longitudinal study

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OBJECTIVE

High survival rates have led to an increased emphasis on the functional outcomes of children diagnosed with low-grade glioma. Most outcomes research has focused on risks associated with radiotherapy, but less is known about neuropsychological risks for patients treated with surgery alone. Here, the authors sought to examine the neuropsychological trajectories of children diagnosed with a low-grade glioma and monitored up to 6 years postsurgery. Secondarily, they explored demographic and clinical predictors of neuropsychological performance.

METHODS

The neuropsychological functioning of 32 patients (median age at diagnosis 10.0 years) was prospectively assessed annually for up to 6 years after surgery (median days from surgery at baseline = 72). Tumor location was predominately supratentorial (65.6%). A combination of performance-based and parent-reported measures was used to assess intelligence, memory, executive functioning, and fine motor control in all patients.

RESULTS

Binomial tests at the postoperative baseline revealed that the proportion of children falling below the average range (< 16th percentile) was significantly higher than the rate expected among healthy peers on measures of verbal memory, processing speed, executive functioning, and fine motor control (p < 0.05). Even so, linear mixed models indicated that neuropsychological functioning at the postoperative baseline did not significantly change over time for up to 6 years after surgery across all domains. A larger tumor size was associated with a slower reaction time (p < 0.01). A supratentorial tumor location and history of seizures were associated with more parent-reported executive difficulties (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

While radiotherapy is a known risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in pediatric brain tumor patients, findings in this study indicate that children treated for low-grade glioma with surgery alone (without radiotherapy or chemotherapy) remain susceptible to difficulties with memory, executive functioning, and motor functioning that persist over time. Over half of the children in the study sample required school support services to address neuropsychological weaknesses. Although low-grade glioma is often conceptualized as a benign tumor, children treated for this lesion require ongoing monitoring and intervention to address neuropsychological weaknesses resulting from the tumor itself as well as the surgery.

ABBREVIATIONS BRIEF = Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; CPT = Continuous Performance Test; D-KEFS = Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System; FSIQ = Full Scale IQ; LGG = low-grade glioma; PRI = Perceptual Reasoning Index; PSI = Processing Speed Index; VCI = Verbal Comprehension Index; WISC-V = Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition; WMI = Working Memory Index.
Article Information

Contributor Notes

Correspondence Lisa S. Kahalley: Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX. kahalley@bcm.edu.INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online December 6, 2019; DOI: 10.3171/2019.9.PEDS19357.Disclosures This work was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute (R01CA187202 and K07CA157923) and the Texas Children’s Hospital Pediatric Pilot Research Fund (Principal Investigator: Lisa Kahalley). Additional support was provided by the National Cancer Institute (R01CA221197, Principal Investigators: Lisa Kahalley and Elisabeth Wilde). Dr. Minard is a statistical reviewer for the journal Chest.
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