Cranial base development plays a large role in anterior and vertical maxillary growth through 7 years of age, and the effect of early endonasal cranial base surgery on midface growth is unknown. The authors present their experience with pediatric endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) and long-term midface growth.
This is a retrospective review of cases where EES was performed from 2000 to 2016. Patients who underwent their first EES of the skull base before age 7 (prior to cranial suture fusion) and had a complete set of pre- and postoperative imaging studies (CT or MRI) with at least 1 year of follow-up were included. A radiologist performed measurements (sella-nasion [S-N] distance and angles between the sella, nasion, and the most concave points of the anterior maxilla [A point] or anterior mandibular synthesis [B point], the SNA, SNB, and ANB angles), which were compared to age- and sex-matched Bolton standards. A Z-score test was used; significance was set at p < 0.05.
The early surgery group had 11 patients, with an average follow-up of 5 years; the late surgery group had 33 patients. Most tumors were benign; 1 patient with a panclival arteriovenous malformation was a significant outlier for all measurements. Comparing the measurements obtained in the early surgery group to Bolton standard norms, the authors found no significant difference in postoperative SNA (p = 0.10), SNB (p = 0.14), or ANB (0.67) angles. The S-N distance was reduced both pre- and postoperatively (SD 1.5, p = 0.01 and p = 0.009). Sex had no significant effect. Compared to patients who had surgery after the age of 7 years, the early surgery group demonstrated no significant difference in pre- to postoperative changes with regard to S-N distance (p = 0.87), SNA angle (p = 0.89), or ANB angle (p = 0.14). Lesion type (craniopharyngioma, angiofibroma, and other types) had no significant effect in either age group.
Though our cohort of patients with skull base lesions demonstrated some abnormal measurements in the maxillary-mandibular relationship before their operation, their postoperative cephalometrics fell within the normal range and showed no significant difference from those of patients who underwent operations at an older age. Therefore, there appears to be no evidence of impact of endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery on craniofacial development within the growth period studied.
ABBREVIATIONSA point = most concave point of anterior maxilla; AVM = arteriovenous malformation; B point = most concave point on anterior mandibular symphysis; EES = endoscopic endonasal surgery; GH = growth hormone; N = nasion; S = sella; UPMC = University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
CappabiancaPCavalloLMEspositoFDe DivitiisOMessinaADe DivitiisE: Extended endoscopic endonasal approach to the midline skull base: the evolving role of transsphenoidal surgery. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg33:151–1992008
KurodaSWatanabeKIshimotoKNakanishiHMoriyamaKTanakaE: Long-term stability of LeFort III distraction osteogenesis with a rigid external distraction device in a patient with Crouzon syndrome. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop140:550–5612011
StapletonALTyler-KabaraECGardnerPASnydermanCHWangEW: Risk factors for cerebrospinal fluid leak in pediatric patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery. Int J Ped Otorhino93:163–1662017
Van PeteghemAClementPA: Influence of extensive functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) on facial growth in children with cystic fibrosis. Comparison of 10 cephalometric parameters of the midface for three study groups. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol70:1407–14132006