The factors associated with hemorrhagic presentation in children with untreated brain arteriovenous malformation: a meta-analysis

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In Brief

Many factors have been proposed to predict hemorrhagic presentation of pediatric patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the predictors of hemorrhagic presentation in pediatric patients with AVMs.

ABBREVIATIONS AVM = arteriovenous malformation; CI = confidence interval; NOS = Newcastle-Ottawa Scale; OR = odds ratio; SM = Spetzler-Martin.

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Article Information

Correspondence Yan Jiang: West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Sichuan, China.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online November 30, 2018; DOI: 10.3171/2018.9.PEDS18262.

X.A. and Z.Y. contributed equally to this work.

Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.



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    The PRISMA flow diagram of procedures to search the included studies.

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    Forest plots for comparison of epidemiology, including mean age (A), age > 12 years (B), and sex (C), in the hemorrhage and nonhemorrhage groups. IV = inverse variance methods.

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    Forest plots for association of hemorrhagic presentation and draining vein of AVMs, including deep venous drainage (A), single draining vein (B), draining vein ectasia (C), draining vein stenosis (D), and single feeder (E). M-H = Mantel-Haenszel.

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    Forest plots for association of hemorrhagic presentation and other characteristics of AVMs, including AVM size (A), eloquent location (B), deep location (C), infratentorial location (D), associated aneurysm (E), morphology (F), and high SM grade68 (G).




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