Venous thromboembolism in the setting of pediatric traumatic brain injury

Clinical article

Dominic A. Harris B.A. and Sandi Lam M.D., M.B.A.
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  • Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas
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Object

The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been well characterized given its rarity in the pediatric population. Investigation of risk factors for VTE in this group requires the use of a large sample size. Using nationally representative hospital discharge data for 2009, the authors of this study characterize the incidence and risk factors for VTE in children hospitalized for TBI.

Methods

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database to examine VTE in TBI-associated hospitalizations for patients 20 years of age or younger during the year 2009.

Results

There were 58,529 children with TBI-related admissions, including 267 with VTE diagnoses. Venous thromboembolisms occurred in 4.6 per 1000 TBI-associated hospitalizations compared with 1.2 per 1000 pediatric hospitalizations overall. By adjusted logistic regression, patients significantly more likely to be diagnosed with VTE had the following: older age of 15–20 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.7, 95% CI 1.8–8.0), venous catheterization (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0–4.6), mechanical ventilation (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.9), tracheostomy (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0), nonaccidental trauma (aOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1–6.9), increased length of stay (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), orthopedic surgery (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8–3.4), and cranial surgery (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–2.8).

Conclusions

Using the Kids' Inpatient Database, the authors found that risk factors for VTE in the setting of TBI in the pediatric population include older age, venous catheterization, nonaccidental trauma, increased length of hospital stay, orthopedic surgery, and cranial surgery.

Abbreviations used in this paper:aOR = adjusted odds ratio; HCUP = Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project; ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases; Ninth Revision; Clinical Modification; ICU = intensive care unit; KID = Kids' Inpatient Database; OR = odds ratio; TBI = traumatic brain injury; VTE = venous thromboembolism.

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Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to: Sandi Lam, M.D., M.B.A., Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, 6701 Fannin St., Ste. 1230-01, Houston, TX 77030. email: sandilam@gmail.com.

Please include this information when citing this paper: published online February 21, 2014; DOI: 10.3171/2014.1.PEDS13479.

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