Material published by the JNS Publishing Group (Journal of Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, and Neurosurgical Focus) is covered by copyright held by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and may not be reproduced, distributed, broadcast, displayed, republished, or transmitted in any form or by any means (including photocopying, publication on a website, or posting to the Internet) without the prior written permission of the JNS Publishing Group, or the agent identified in this document. Subscribers may download material from the online version of the Journal (one machine-readable copy and one printed copy) for their own personal non-commercial use only. Non-subscribers may download material from the online version of the Journal on a pay-per-view basis (one machine-readable copy and one printed copy) for their own personal non-commercial use only. Uses beyond those allowed by the "fair use" limitations of US copyright law require the permission of the JNS Publishing Group, or the agent identified in this document In particular, permission must be obtained before any material from the print and online versions of the journals is reproduced in print or electronically and before multiple copies of any articles published in these journals are made.
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Examples of commercial use:
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