The American Association of Neurological Surgeons, the Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG), and the Editors cannot be held responsible for views or opinions expressed in articles in JNSPG journals or in any supplemental materials on the JNSPG website ( that are linked to those articles. In addition, publication of an article in a JNSPG journal does not imply endorsement of materials, equipment, or intellectual property specified in that article or endorsement of any external websites or contents therein that are linked to that article.

Terms of Use

The content on this Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG) Website (the Material) is copyrighted. The Website includes the electronic edition of the Journal of Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, and Neurosurgical Focus. By using this website and the electronic editions of the aforementioned journals you as a User are agreeing to abide by these Terms of Use.

Access to Website Materials

  1. All content older than 12 months, but not older than 5 years, in the Journal of Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, and all Neurosurgical Focus content regardless of age, is available to all Users.
  2. All Users may browse current table of contents, past issue table of contents, prerelease table of contents, and abstracts.
  3. All Users, including Guest Users, have the option to create “My Account” which will allow them to create links to articles of interest and search criteria and manage their email alerting Website. During “Free Registration” Users will select a username and password which must be kept confidential and not be disclosed to or shared with anyone else.
  4. Your institution may have a license that permits you additional use. You should contact your institution’s librarians/administrator for more information. Users at institutions that have subscribed and Users who have a personal subscription will have access to full text and PDFs. Authorized Users may view, download, or print out single copies of individual articles for personal use, scholarly or educational use. Authorized Users may fax or mail a paper copy to a User outside the Licensee’s secure network.

Rules and Restrictions on Use of the Website and the Materials

  1. No Generative AI Training Use. JNSPG reserves the rights, and no other party has rights to, without written permission, reproduce and/or otherwise use JNSPG content in any manner for purposes of training artificial intelligence technologies to generate text, including without limitation, technologies that are capable of generating works in the same style or genre as the Work, unless express written permission to do so is secured from JNSPG, or from the author of a work when an article is published under a Creative Commons license.
  2. You may not sell, republish, or systematically distribute any Materials on the JNSPG website without written permission from JNSPG. This means that you may not reproduce, distribute, publish, enter into a database, display, perform, modify, create derivative works, transmit, or in any way exploit any part of this Website. If you are an authorized user (see following terms) you may make one machine-readable copy and/or one print copy of occasional articles for your own personal use, as follows.
  3. You must retain all copyright notices, author attributions, and disclaimers on the materials.
  4. This Website and its Material are provided "as is." JNSPG hereby disclaims responsibility for the content accuracy, completeness, timeliness or reliability of the Material and for any perceived warranties. The Material is provided for reference purposes and is not to be relied upon as a substitute for professional advice. Although we intend to take reasonable steps to prevent the introduction of viruses, worms, "Trojan horses" or other destructive materials to this Website, we do not guarantee or warrant that this Website or materials that may be downloaded from this Website do not contain such destructive features. By using this site you hereby release JNSPG from any claims you may otherwise have and hereby indemnify JNSPG for any claims made by any third party related to your use of the site, except that for paying users JNSPG does not disclaim responsibility for periods of inaccessibility caused by circumstances within its control, but then only for the amount paid for the period of non-availability. You acknowledge that JNSPG has no control over, does not endorse, and is not responsible for the content of, any external websites that are linked to from the JNSPG Website.
  5. JNSPG reserves the right to may add to or remove Materials and features from the Website, or to otherwise modify or discontinue, temporarily or permanently, all or part of the Website without advance notice at any time.
  6. You are responsible for any content that you post (or that is posted from your account), or that you post links to, all of which must be to advance the scientific and educational purposes of the JNSPG. Your posting of content will give JNSPG the irrevocable right to use or transmit such content in any form or manner in the discretion of JNSPG.
  7. As a condition of your access and use of the Website, you agree not to use the Website for any purpose that is unlawful or inconsistent with the Agreement. JNSPG, in its sole discretion, is authorized to remove or delete any entries, information, materials or other content that violates these Terms of Use or that is otherwise objectionable. JNSPG reserves the right to investigate and prosecute violations of any of these Terms of Use to the fullest extent of the law. If Users fail to comply with these Terms of Use, JNSPG in its sole discretion may terminate the User’s access to the website immediately without advance notice. These terms of use comprise an Agreement that is governed by the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia, which shall be the forum for any disputes.

Social Media Disclaimer

JNSPG has several social media channels, including, but not limited to Facebook and Twitter. We encourage you to take a look at them and engage with our content. We appreciate open discussions and commentary on all our posts. We do not offer comment or provide responses to questions regarding medical direction or advice. When posting to the JNSPG social media channels, please be sure to:

  1. Maintain HIPAA Guidelines regarding posting of any privileged content, including all personal identifiable information (email addresses, addresses, phone numbers, account numbers, etc.)
  2. Refrain from profanity, defamatory posts, or other offensive or inappropriate commentary
  3. Refrain from posting spam, solicit, advertise, promote, or endorse any financial, political, or government organization
  4. Post marketing message or links to external sites for promotional purposes

As Administrators of the JNSPG's sites, we reserve the right to moderate all content and block users who violate our guidelines.

Privacy Policy

The JNS Publishing Group (the “JNS”) respects the privacy of our readers. Access to some materials on this site may require that we obtain information about our online visitors. This information allows us to serve you better. This Privacy Policy explains how we collect, use and safeguard the information that we may collect from you.

Scope of this Privacy Policy

This policy applies to your use of the JNS website. This policy does not apply to your use of other websites, apps or other third-party online services to which the JNS website may link.

Changes to this Privacy Policy

As our organization, membership and services change over time, this Privacy Policy is expected to change as well. We reserve the right to amend this Privacy Policy at any time, for any reason. We will post a notice that this policy has been amended by revising the “Effective” date at the top of this page. Any changes to this policy will be placed on the website 5 days before they become effective and the effective date will be stated.

What kinds of information may we request?

The types of information we request depend on your purpose in visiting our site. Casual visitors to our site are only asked to provide personal information if they wish to receive email alerts about upcoming articles, become a subscriber, or purchase an article. All visitors have free access to any article in Neurosurgical Focus and to selected articles in the other journals. Only aggregate data – such as the number of hits per page – are collected in the public areas of our website. Aggregate data is only used for internal and marketing purposes and does not include any personally identifiable information. Visitors who request email alerts about upcoming articles are asked to provide their names and email addresses. Customers who wish to purchase one or more articles are asked to provide their names, email addresses, and credit card information, and to select a user name and password. Subscribers are asked to provide their names, postal/email addresses, phone/fax numbers, some demographic information, and credit card information. They also are asked to select a user name and password so that they may access all online journals at any time.

What kinds of information are automatically collected?

We track how our Site is used by both anonymous visitors and visitors who interact with the Site and we may store some information on your computer. One way we track is by using "cookies." A cookie is a small data file that is automatically transferred from the website to the visitor’s computer. Two types of cookies are commonly used. A session cookie is created by a website when that website is accessed; that type of cookie is automatically deleted by closing the web browser. A persistent cookie is a cookie that is stored on the hard drive of the user’s computer or device for a period of time chosen by the website that sets the cookie, usually for a number of years, unless the user deletes it manually. This policy distinguishes between short-lived cookies and long-lasting cookies. Short-lived cookies include all session cookies and those persistent cookies that are set to be stored for no more than one week. Our websites may at times require users to accept short-lived cookies in order for the websites to function properly. Long-lasting cookies may be used on the site to track visitor practices to help determine which site features and services are most important and guide editorial direction. Other long-lasting cookies may make it possible for the user to access the site without requiring entry of a user name or password, allow the user to view different restricted areas of the site without reregistering, allow the user to personalize the site for future use and provide other features and benefits. Users who do not desire the functionality created by the long-lasting cookie should have the option to disable the long-lasting cookie function, either by indicating when asked that they do not wish to have a long-lasting cookie created or by disabling the long-lasting cookie function on their web browser. Individuals should be able to opt out of long-lasting cookie functions that permit tracking of personal information at any time. Further, you should have the option of setting your browser to reject cookies. However, doing this will hinder performance and negatively impact your experience on our Site. Cookies are required for the Members-Only and e-commerce sections of the website. Cookies are essential for site administration and security. A log file records computer transactions. Information in a log file may include, among others, the IP address of the computer used by the visitor, the host and domain names, and the type of web browser used to access the website. Such information is used to analyze website use so that we may improve service.

Do we share this automatically-collected information?

This information is accessible only to employees of the JNS Publishing Group and our service providers that host our website. We will not share information that can identify visitors to our site with other organizations unless we believe that action is required by law, necessary to protect the rights and property of the JNS Publishing Group, or necessary to protect the personal safety of our employees, website visitors, or other members of the public.

What about credit card account information?

Credit card information provided to the JNS, such as credit card numbers, will be used only for billing purposes, to fill orders, to provide services, and for other ordered products/services. For publication orders, this may involve providing your credit card number to our designated business partners. The JNS and its designated partners will only use your credit card number to process transactions you request. When members and customers choose to pay using their credit cards, the JNS submits the information needed to obtain payment to the appropriate clearinghouse. Credit card information provided to the JNS will never be sold or shared with any other party, except as noted above. Neither the JNS, nor its designated partners and agents, disclose credit card account information provided by its members and customers to outside parties. By purchasing products or services that require the disclosure of your financial information on the website, you consent to our providing your financial information to our service providers and to such third parties as we determine is necessary to process your transactions.

How do we safeguard personal information?

All credit card transactions are safeguarded by secure sockets layer (SSL) data encryption. Other personal information is stored in databases at the JNS Publishing Group.

Disclaimer Notice

The JNS website and and the information it contains are provided as a service by the JNSPG. This system is monitored to ensure proper operation, to verify the functioning of applicable security features, and for comparable purposes. Anyone using this system expressly consents to such monitoring. Unauthorized attempts to modify any information stored on this system, to defeat or circumvent security features, or to utilize this system for other than its intended purposes are prohibited and may result in criminal prosecution. No website or app is 100% secure. You can usually tell whether encryption is being used on a website by noting the “locked” or other status indicator on the browser you are using. If the browser you are using does not indicate that the session is secure (e.g., by displaying a lock, a key or similar icon), you should assume that the connection is not secure and that third parties will receive the information shared by you and us during that part of the session.

International Users

If you are visiting the website from outside of the United States, your connection may be through and to servers located in the United States. Your registration, entries, order or other use of the website may be fully processed in and from the United States and all information you provide may be processed and maintained in our servers (or our service provider’s servers) and internal system located within the United States. By using the website, you authorize the export of personal information to the United States and its storage and use as specified herein when you provide such information to us.

Access to other websites

Through links on the website, visitors can access other websites belonging to the federal government, scientific publications, and manufacturers of medical equipment. These websites have their own privacy policies, which may differ from our own. The JNS Publishing Group is not responsible for the content of these websites or for their privacy policies.

If you have any questions or concerns about this Privacy Policy, you can contact us at You can also send us mail at:

Privacy Officer
5550 Meadowbrook Industrial Ct.
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852