Guidelines for Tables

Tables should be created using the table functionality tools in Microsoft Word and submitted separately from the manuscript file. We are unable to format tables imported into Microsoft Word as PICT files. We are also unable to accept tables created in spreadsheet or presentation programs (such as Excel and PowerPoint, respectively).

Tables must be cited consecutively in the text. Table parts are not allowed (e.g., Table 1A, Table 1B).

Table Formatting

  • Each table should appear on its own page, with all of the tables in one Microsoft Word file
  • Each table should have a title
  • Data should be presented in a cell-based format, with the appropriate number of columns and rows
  • Do not use tabs within cells or in place of columns
  • Use tabs to indicate indents in the first column; do not use extra cells to indent
  • Bullets are not allowed in tables
  • Images, graphics, and colors (font or shading) are not permitted in tables. If these need to be included, tables should be submitted as supplemental materials
  • Abbreviations used in each table should be defined in the table footnotes

Literature Review Tables

Tables that include references should be formatted according to the following:

  • The author name (last name only, no first initial) and year should be combined into one cell. Do not put the year in a separate column
  • For 3 or more authors, “et al.” should be used after the first author’s name. For 2 authors, both author names should be included
  • Citation numbers must be included in superscript, to correspond with the reference included in your manuscript
Examples of Correct Reference Styling Examples of Incorrect Reference Styling
Cushing, 19428 Cushing et. al., (1942)
Spetzler & Martin, 198656 Spetzler et al, 1986[56]
Rutka et al., 201445 Rutka JT(45)


Please carefully review the references in the table. Accuracy will reduce the number of reference queries you receive


  • All references in the tables must also be included in the reference section of the manuscript
  • If needed, update the citation numbering after revisions are made to the text
  • Review your references for any that were published ahead of print, and update the year of publication if needed