Guidelines for References

Please follow the AMA Manual of Style, 11th edition, for reference formatting (https://www.amamanualofstyle.com).

References should be cited in the text consecutively with superscripted Arabic numerals.

References should be listed in the order in which they appear in the text.

For all reference types, list up to six authors. If there more than six authors, list three authors, then “et al”.

Please use the NLM (PubMed) abbreviations for journal titles (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals).

An EndNote template for the AMA style is available (https://endnote.com/style_download/jama-journal-ofthe-american-medical-association).


Examples

JOURNAL ARTICLES
Lacroix M, Abi-Said D, Fourney DR, et al. A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival. J Neurosurg. 2001;95(2):190-198.

JOURNAL ARTICLES ONLINE ONLY (WITH NO VOLUME OR PAGE INFORMATION)
Murray CJL. Maximizing antiretroviral therapy in developing countries: the dual challenge of efficiency and quality. JAMA. Published online December 1, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.16376

BOOKS & REPORTS
Cushing H, Eisenhardt L. Meningiomas: Their Classification, Regional Behaviour, Life History, and Surgical End Results. Charles C Thomas; 1938.
Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockey P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.
Faul M, Xu L, Wald MM, Coronado VG. Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2010. Accessed June 14, 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/pdf/blue_book.pdf

CONFERENCE PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS
Durbin D, Kallan M, Elliott M, et al. Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger air bags. Paper presented at: 46th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement for Automotive Medicine; September 20, 2002; Tempe, AZ.

MAGAZINE OR NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
Perez-Pena R. Children in shelters hit hard by asthma. New York Times. March 2, 2004. Accessed March 2, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/02/nyregion/02asthma.html

ONLINE SOURCES
AANS. About the AANS. Accessed September 19, 2019. https://www.aans.org/en/About-Us

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. CMS proposals to implement certain disclosure provisions of the Affordable Care Act. December 14, 2011. Accessed April 16, 2021. https://www.cms.gov/newsroom/factsheets/cms-proposals-implement-certain-disclosureprovisions-affordable-care-act


For more detailed information about formatting references, please refer to the AMA Manual of Style.