Boutin PR. The medical malpractice crisis: is the medical review committee a viable and legal alternative? Santa Clara Law Rev. 1975;15:405.
US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Medical Malpractice: Report of the Secretary’s Commission on Medical Malpractice. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; 1973.
National Practitioner Data Bank. Public use data file. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed September 15, 2020. https://www.npdb.hrsa.gov/resources/publicData.jsp
Thomas R, Gupta R, Griessenauer CJ, Medical malpractice in neurosurgery: a comprehensive analysis. World Neurosurg. 2018;110:e552–e559.
Rovit RL, Simon AS, Drew J, Neurosurgical experience with malpractice litigation: an analysis of closed claims against neurosurgeons in New York State, 1999 through 2003. J Neurosurg. 2007;106(6):1108–1114.
Elsamadicy AA, Sergesketter AR, Frakes MD, Lad SP. Review of neurosurgery medical professional liability claims in the United States. Neurosurgery. 2018;83(5):997–1006.
Agarwal N, Gupta R, Agarwal P, Descriptive analysis of state and federal spine surgery malpractice litigation in the United States. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2018;43(14):984–990.
National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Facts and figures at a glance. University of Alabama at Birmingham; 2018. Accessed September 15, 2020. https://www.nscisc.uab.edu/Public/Facts%20and%20Figures%20-%202018.pdf
Quigley RS, Akpolat YT, Forrest BD, Reason for lawsuit in spinal cord injury affects final outcome. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015;40(11):851–855.
Lekovic GP, Harrington TR. Litigation of missed cervical spine injuries in patients presenting with blunt traumatic injury. Neurosurgery. 2007;60(3):516–523.
Studdert DM, Mello MM, Sage WM, Defensive medicine among high-risk specialist physicians in a volatile malpractice environment. JAMA. 2005;293(21):2609–2617.
Jarvik JG, Gold LS, Comstock BA, Association of early imaging for back pain with clinical outcomes in older adults. JAMA. 2015;313(11):1143–1153.
Devine J, Chutkan N, Norvell DC, Dettori JR. Avoiding wrong site surgery: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35(9 suppl):S28–S36.
James MA, Seiler JG III, Harrast JJ, The occurrence of wrong-site surgery self-reported by candidates for certification by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(1):e2.
Longo UG, Loppini M, Romeo G, Errors of level in spinal surgery: an evidence-based systematic review. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012;94(11):1546–1550.
Vachhani JA, Klopfenstein JD. Incidence of neurosurgical wrong-site surgery before and after implementation of the universal protocol. Neurosurgery. 2013;72(4):590–595.
Algie CM, Mahar RK, Wasiak J, Interventions for reducing wrong-site surgery and invasive clinical procedures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(3):CD009404.
Groff MW, Heller JE, Potts EA, A survey-based study of wrong-level lumbar spine surgery: the scope of the problem and current practices in place to help avoid these errors. World Neurosurg. 2013;79(3-4):585–592.
Nassr A, Lee JY, Bashir RS, Does incorrect level needle localization during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion lead to accelerated disc degeneration? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34(2):189–192.
Mayer JE, Dang RP, Duarte Prieto GF, Analysis of the techniques for thoracic- and lumbar-level localization during posterior spine surgery and the occurrence of wrong-level surgery: results from a national survey. Spine J. 2014;14(5):741–748.
Vitale M, Minkara A, Matsumoto H, Building consensus: development of best practice guidelines on wrong level surgery in spinal deformity. Spine Deform. 2018;6(2):121–129.
Patel A, Runner RP, Bellamy JT, Rhee JM. A reproducible and reliable localization technique for lumbar spine surgery that minimizes unintended-level exposure and wrong-level surgery. Spine J. 2019;19(5):773–780.
Ahn UM, Ahn NU, Buchowski JM, Cauda equina syndrome secondary to lumbar disc herniation: a meta-analysis of surgical outcomes. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000;25(12):1515–1522.
Gardner A, Gardner E, Morley T. Cauda equina syndrome: a review of the current clinical and medico-legal position. Eur Spine J. 2011;20(5):690–697.
Daniels EW, Gordon Z, French K, Review of medicolegal cases for cauda equina syndrome: what factors lead to an adverse outcome for the provider? Orthopedics. 2012;35(3):e414–e419.
Todd NV. Causes and outcomes of cauda equina syndrome in medico-legal practice: a single neurosurgical experience of 40 consecutive cases. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25(4):503–508.
Nielsen B, de Nully M, Schmidt K, Hansen RI. A urodynamic study of cauda equina syndrome due to lumbar disc herniation. Urol Int. 1980;35(3):167–170.
Lunn JN, Devlin HB. Lessons from the confidential enquiry into perioperative deaths in three NHS regions. Lancet. 1987;2(8572):1384–1386.
Sharma BR. Death during or following surgical procedure and the allegation of medical negligence: an overview. J Forensic Leg Med. 2007;14(6):311–317.
Askitopoulou H, Vgontzas AN. The relevance of the Hippocratic Oath to the ethical and moral values of contemporary medicine. Part II: Interpretation of the Hippocratic Oath—today’s perspective. Eur Spine J. 2018;27(7):1491–1500.
Mazor KM, Simon SR, Gurwitz JH. Communicating with patients about medical errors: a review of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(15):1690–1697.
Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America; Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, eds. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. National Academies Press (US); 2000.
Beckman HB, Markakis KM, Suchman AL, Frankel RM. The doctor-patient relationship and malpractice. Lessons from plaintiff depositions. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(12):1365–1370.
Painter LM, Kidwell KM, Kidwell RP, Do Written disclosures of serious events increase risk of malpractice claims? One health care system’s experience. J Patient Saf. 2018;14(2):87–94.
Kachalia A, Kaufman SR, Boothman R, Liability claims and costs before and after implementation of a medical error disclosure program. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153(4):213–221.
National Practioner Data Bank. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Accessed September 15, 2020. https://www.npdb.hrsa.gov/