Effects on cognition and quality of life with unilateral magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor

Free access

OBJECTIVE

Although neurosurgical procedures are effective treatments for controlling involuntary tremor in patients with essential tremor (ET), they can cause cognitive decline, which can affect quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study is to assess the changes in the neuropsychological profile and QOL of patients following MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy for ET.

METHODS

The authors prospectively analyzed 20 patients with ET who underwent unilateral MRgFUS thalamotomy at their institute in the period from March 2012 to September 2014. Patients were regularly evaluated with the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST), neuroimaging, and cognition and QOL measures. The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery was used to assess cognitive function, and the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST) was used to evaluate the postoperative change in QOL.

RESULTS

The total CRST score improved by 67.3% (from 44.75 ± 9.57 to 14.65 ± 9.19, p < 0.001) at 1 year following MRgFUS thalamotomy. Mean tremor scores improved by 68% in the hand contralateral to the thalamotomy, but there was no significant improvement in the ipsilateral hand. Although minimal cognitive decline was observed without statistical significance, memory function was much improved (p = 0.031). The total QUEST score also showed the same trend of improving (64.16 ± 17.75 vs 27.38 ± 13.96, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors report that MRgFUS thalamotomy had beneficial effects in terms of not only tremor control but also safety for cognitive function and QOL. Acceptable postoperative changes in cognition and much-improved QOL positively support the clinical significance of MRgFUS thalamotomy as a new, favorable surgical treatment in patients with ET.

ABBREVIATIONS CRST = Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor; DBS = deep brain stimulation; ET = essential tremor; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MRgFUS = MR-guided focused ultrasound; QOL = quality of life; QSI = QUEST summary index; QUEST = Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire; RF = radiofrequency; SNSB-II = Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery II; Vim = ventral intermediate nucleus.

OBJECTIVE

Although neurosurgical procedures are effective treatments for controlling involuntary tremor in patients with essential tremor (ET), they can cause cognitive decline, which can affect quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study is to assess the changes in the neuropsychological profile and QOL of patients following MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy for ET.

METHODS

The authors prospectively analyzed 20 patients with ET who underwent unilateral MRgFUS thalamotomy at their institute in the period from March 2012 to September 2014. Patients were regularly evaluated with the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST), neuroimaging, and cognition and QOL measures. The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery was used to assess cognitive function, and the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST) was used to evaluate the postoperative change in QOL.

RESULTS

The total CRST score improved by 67.3% (from 44.75 ± 9.57 to 14.65 ± 9.19, p < 0.001) at 1 year following MRgFUS thalamotomy. Mean tremor scores improved by 68% in the hand contralateral to the thalamotomy, but there was no significant improvement in the ipsilateral hand. Although minimal cognitive decline was observed without statistical significance, memory function was much improved (p = 0.031). The total QUEST score also showed the same trend of improving (64.16 ± 17.75 vs 27.38 ± 13.96, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors report that MRgFUS thalamotomy had beneficial effects in terms of not only tremor control but also safety for cognitive function and QOL. Acceptable postoperative changes in cognition and much-improved QOL positively support the clinical significance of MRgFUS thalamotomy as a new, favorable surgical treatment in patients with ET.

ABBREVIATIONS CRST = Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor; DBS = deep brain stimulation; ET = essential tremor; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MRgFUS = MR-guided focused ultrasound; QOL = quality of life; QSI = QUEST summary index; QUEST = Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire; RF = radiofrequency; SNSB-II = Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery II; Vim = ventral intermediate nucleus.

Stereotactic radiofrequency (RF) thalamotomy and thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) are well-known successful treatments to alleviate disabling tremor in patients with either essential tremor (ET) or Parkinson tremor.1,9,26,30,35,41 Despite their delivered improvement in tremor, these therapeutic modalities are often accompanied by adverse effects on speech or language. Recently, a meta-analysis demonstrated that speech difficulty occurred in 19.8% of patients after RF thalamotomy and 19.4% after DBS.3 In particular, patients treated bilaterally showed a 2- to 3-fold higher risk of a speech problem than unilaterally treated patients.3 Therefore, RF thalamic procedures to one side are frequently preferred, especially the left side given right-hand dominance. Moreover, some research has reported major concerns regarding other cognitive function changes following thalamic procedures. Because of the anatomical and functional relationships between the thalamus and cortex, in general, left-sided surgery is regarded as being associated with verbal fluency, verbal memory, and language, whereas right-sided surgery is associated with visual spatial demands.2,23,29,32 Many studies have reported that thalamotomy is associated with a risk of cognitive deterioration, especially score reductions in verbal fluency or verbal memory following left-sided procedures.34,40 With regard to ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) DBS, verbal fluency could diminish relative to baseline in about 10% of patients, though overall cognitive function was stable due to compensation for improved visuomotor or verbal memory function.14 Although many studies on stereotactic surgeries for ET have demonstrated lower-than-expected postoperative cognitive impairment,21,34,40 it is still generally accepted that thalamic procedures, especially left-sided surgery, are risky to cognitive function.

Essential tremor is a distressful condition for patients because it restricts their behavior in performing even simple daily activities, such as writing, using chopsticks or a spoon, and drinking. Many studies have reported improved quality of life (QOL) after surgical treatment, either lesioning or DBS, mainly attributable to improvements in dominant hand tremor and the performance of daily activities.13,17,18,22 However, most of these findings neglect cognitive issues, and it would be difficult to assess whether outcome would be positive or negative when considering neuropsychological aspects.

Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), a new stereotactic surgical technique, has become popular because of its noninvasiveness without scalp incision or craniotomy. Other major advantages include its clinical effectiveness in controlling tremor and its few side effects as a result of real-time monitoring.8,11,13 Its clinical applications have been expanding, from movement disorders such as ET or Parkinson disease to psychiatric diseases such as obsessive-compulsive disorder.8,11–13,16 Recently, Elias et al. reported some complications following unilateral MRgFUS thalamotomy for ET, including gait disturbance, paresthesia, contralateral weakness, dysarthria, and vertigo.13 Other studies have described similar adverse events related to MRgFUS thalamotomy in patients with ET or tremor-dominant Parkinson disease.8,11,42 However, not enough research has been focused on detailed cognitive issues. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate pre- to postoperative changes in cognitive function and QOL in patients with ET who were managed with unilateral MRgFUS thalamotomy.

Methods

We prospectively evaluated comprehensive neuropsychological test batteries and measures of QOL in patients with ET who underwent unilateral thalamotomy with MRgFUS at Severance Hospital in the period from March 2012 to September 2014. Medically refractory ET was diagnosed by neurologists or neurosurgeons who specialize in movement disorders. All study participants were right-handed. We performed MRgFUS thalamotomy using the ExAblate 4000 device (ExAblate Neuro, InSightec Inc.) with direct targeting to the left Vim of the thalamus. The target coordinates were as follows: 14–15 mm lateral to the midline, 6–7 mm anterior to the posterior commissure, and at the line of the intercommissural line. A detailed description of the conventional MRgFUS procedure is available in our previous study.11

Patients were regularly evaluated with the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST), neuroimaging, cognitive function assessment, and QOL measures. The CRST consists of 3 parts (A, B, and C), with higher scores indicating greater severity: part A quantifies the scores of resting, postural, and action tremor for 9 parts of the body; part B gives additional weight to action tremors of the upper extremities, such as writing, drawing, and pouring liquids; and part C evaluates global functional disability.36 These scores were evaluated using videotaped neurological examinations at baseline and then 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and more than 1 year after MRgFUS thalamotomy. Three-tesla MRI was serially performed 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, and 1 year after treatment.

The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery II (SNSB-II) was used to assess cognitive function at baseline and more than 6 months following surgery, and it was evaluated by the same examiner who was blinded to the MRgFUS procedure. The battery included the following subsets of tests: 1) attention, 2) language and related functions, 3) visuospatial function, 4) verbal and visual memory, and 5) frontal/executive function. In the same interval, a QOL score was assessed using a reliable ET-specific measure, the Quality of Life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST).39 The QUEST consists of 30 items contributing to 5 subdomains, which were expressed as a percentage of the total score: 1) physical, 2) psychosocial, 3) communication, 4) hobbies/leisure, and 5) work/finances. The total score on the QUEST, or the QUEST summary index (QSI), indicated the mean score of the 5 subdomains, with a higher score interpreted as a worse perceived QOL. Sufficient information about the operation was provided to all participants, and written informed consent was obtained from all of them prior to the procedures. This study received full approval from the ethics committee of our institutional review board.

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS version 23 (IBM Corp.). A paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test was chosen based on the normal distribution status to determine differences between preoperative and postoperative scores. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to analyze serially measured data in the same subjects. Continuous variables were presented as the mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables as the frequency or percentage. Differences in demographics, clinical characteristics, and intraoperative findings were analyzed by selecting the t-test and Fisher’s exact test that suited the situation. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Data Related to Demographics and Sonication

A total of 20 patients with ET were enrolled in this study. They had a mean age of 64.1 years (range 47–77 years) with a male predominance (M/F 17:3). The mean age at disease onset was 42.9 ± 15.03 years (median 46.0 years), and all patients manifested their symptoms before 65 years of age. The average symptom duration was 21.2 years (range 5–54 years). The patients regularly took more than 2 medications for tremor control, including a beta-blocker or primidone, before surgery. During MRgFUS thalamotomy, patients underwent an average of 16.8 sessions of sonication (range 13–20 sessions) with various parameters, including mean maximal energy of 15,910 ± 5702.7 J and sonication power of 782.5 ± 152.4 W for 10–32 seconds. A maximal temperature rise up to 57.9°C on average was achieved.

Changes in the CRST

The part A score on the CRST showed 78.2% improvement (from 12.60 ± 3.80 to 2.75 ± 3.18, p < 0.001), comparing the scores at baseline and the 1-year follow-up, and the part B score represented 68.2% improvement (from 19.35 ± 5.78 to 6.15 ± 5.60, p < 0.001). Part C also improved by 55.1% (from 12.80 ± 3.17 to 5.75 ± 4.25, p < 0.001; Fig. 1). Overall, the total CRST score remarkably improved by 67.3% (from 44.75 ± 9.57 to 14.65 ± 9.19, p < 0.001) at 1 year after MRgFUS thalamotomy. Mean tremor scores improved by 68% (from 18.15 ± 3.96 to 5.80 ± 4.53, p < 0.001) in the hand contralateral to the thalamotomy (right hand), whereas the ipsilateral hand (left hand) showed no significant difference in scores (from 10.10 ± 5.47 to 12.45 ± 7.14, p = 0.283). When these results were verified with Bonferroni post hoc analysis with a significance level of 0.01 (0.05/5), improvements in total CRST scores were statistically significant at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and > 1 year (p < 0.001). Tremor scores in the left hand alone exhibited no significant improvement at the follow-up evaluations at 1 month (p = 0.810), 3 months (p = 0.305), 6 months (p = 0.493), and > 1 year (p = 0.283).

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Improvement in CRST after MRgFUS thalamotomy.

Neuropsychological Outcome

The mean psychometric results for all patients are shown in Table 1. Preoperative assessments showed that 9 (45%) of 20 patients already had various degrees of cognitive impairment, including 6 patients with single-domain, nonamnestic, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 3 patients with multidomain amnestic MCI. Postoperatively, there were positive trends toward clinical improvement on the Korean version of the Boston Naming Test and visual memory functions, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition (p < 0.05). Minimal declines in other areas of cognitive function were observed; however, these did not reach statistically significant results. When test results were classified by several domains (SNSB-II), we noted that memory function was much improved (p = 0.031) following MRgFUS thalamotomy (Fig. 2). When analyzing each individual’s data, we found a total of 5 patients who exhibited a minor decline in verbal memory postoperatively. Four of these patients were among those who had preoperative MCI, and their verbal memory function became a little worse. Only 1 patient, a 61-year-old man, lost cognitive function in the fields of verbal memory and frontal/executive function. In contrast, the other 4 patients with MCI showed cognitive improvements, particularly in language, visual memory, or verbal memory. There were no statistically relevant factors related to cognitive changes after treatment.

TABLE 1.

Neuropsychological data between baseline and postoperative state

FactorsBaselineFU(>6 mos)p Value
K-MMSE28.70 (1.45)28.50 (1.28)0.363
Attention
 Digit span (forward)6.65 (1.23)6.55 (1.32)0.681
 Digit span (backward)4.25 (0.97)4.15(1.18)0.713
 Digit span (forward-backward)2.40 (1.10)2.40 (1.31)0.707
Language & related function
 K-BNT48.75 (5.57)50.35 (5.14)0.015
 Repetition14.80 (0.52)15.00 (0.00)0.102
 Calculation11.75 (0.64)11.65 (0.75)0.414
Visuospatial function
 RCFT34.05 (1.54)34.30 (1.58)0.621
Verbal memory function (SVLT)
 Immediate recall21.35 (4.97)22.00 (5.67)0.454
 Delayed recall6.35 (2.76)6.15 (3.05)0.750
 Recognition21.40 (2.56)21.70 (2.00)0.516
Visual memory function (RCFT)
 Immediate recall19.30 (6.18)22.05 (7.78)0.049
 Delayed recall18.85 (5.31)21.13 (7.25)0.038
 Recognition20.50 (1.79)21.45 (1.39)0.028
Frontal executive function
 Contrasting program19.95 (0.22)19.95 (0.22)>0.999
 Go–no-go test19.50 (2.24)18.95 (4.25)0.593
 COWAT: animal15.35 (2.87)14.70 (3.11)0.330
 COWAT: supermarket15.15 (5.06)15.45 (3.61)0.653
 Phonemic generative naming24.50 (9.25)23.20 (8.29)0.837
 Word Stroop test111.65 (0.75)111.25 (2.69)0.480
 Color Stroop test83.80 (21.69)85.00 (24.48)0.626
COWAT = Controlled Oral Word Association Test; FU = follow-up; K-BNT = Korean version of Boston Naming Test; K-MMSE = Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination; RCFT = Rey Complex Figure Test; SVLT = Seoul Verbal Learning Test.Values are expressed as the mean (standard deviation).
FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Results for cognitive domains of the SNSB-II after MRgFUS thalamotomy for ET.

Measurement of QOL

Postoperatively, the patients reported significant improvement in the overall QSI as compared with their preoperative state (64.16 ± 17.75 vs 27.38 ± 13.96, p < 0.001). They represented balanced functional recovery in all domains after MRgFUS thalamotomy: physical (36.78 ± 16.29 vs 18.22 ± 8.45, p < 0.001), social (66.55 ± 23.59 vs 30.12 ± 15.52, p < 0.001), communication (80.00 ± 18.73 vs 34.66 ± 24.23, p < 0.001), hobbies/leisure (74.34 ± 21.66 vs 30.00 ± 19.04, p < 0.001), and work/finances (63.17 ± 22.36 vs 23.84 ± 13.12, p < 0.001; Fig. 3).

FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Changes in QUEST scores from baseline to follow-up.

Other Complications

Ten patients experienced mild headache, dizziness, or nausea during sonication. After treatment, 3 patients continued to complain of pain at the pin site due to stereotactic frame fixation, which easily resolved with pain killers and rest. Another patient suffered from a transient balance problem, possibly due to ultrasonic energy affecting the medial lemniscus; the patient completely recovered in 1 month with the use of an oral steroid. No significant aftereffects occurred during the entire follow-up period.

Discussion

Essential tremor is not a pure motor disease and is known to be associated with cognitive dysfunction, usually in the subtypes of attention, verbal fluency, and memory.4,5,15,28,33 Sánchez-Ferro et al. stated that patients with ET had impaired cognitive performance, predominantly in cognitive processing speed, even in nondementia cases.33 Authors of some prospective studies have stated that patients with ET have an increased risk of dementia during the disease period.6,37 Therefore, when considering treatment for ET, one must remember that the goal of treatment is not only to improve tremor, but also to avoid cognitive decline after therapeutic intervention.

Magnetic resonance–guided FUS thalamotomy is an emerging technique for ET, but its effectiveness is comparable to that of other modalities, such as conventional lesioning methods (RF or Gamma Knife thalamotomy) or DBS.1,9,24,30,32 However, in terms of neuropsychological effects, including cognition, there have been quite variable and controversial reports following these treatments.14,34,38,40 In patients with ET, it has been suggested that there are complex, widespread alterations of white mater fiber integrity in both motor and nonmotor networks.25 Thus, theoretically, thalamic procedures can produce disruption in the neuroanatomical pathway connecting the prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas, resulting in frontal lobe dysfunction.29 Moreover, thalamotomy usually seems to carry the risk of cognitive decline, possibly because of a decrease in thalamocortical drive.34 Deep brain stimulation has been considered superior to thalamotomy in terms of cognitive function given the adjustability and reversibility of electrical stimulation. And certainly, there have been some studies with positive results of DBS in enhancing visuoperceptual or verbal memory function or in causing no significant effects on higher cognitive function even in the long term.14,19,38 However, DBS has also caused cognitive side effects, such as those related to language, visual memory, and verbal fluency.7,38 Interestingly, there has been a report of a subtle diminution in verbal memory in the DBS-on state versus the DBS-off state.27

In the present study, we demonstrated that postoperative cognitive decline could be minimized by thalamic lesioning with MRgFUS. Only 5 patients manifested worsened cognitive function, but most of them (4 patients) already had cognitive impairment as a predisposing factor before surgery. This cognitive decline can be explained by the supposition that the disrupted neural pathway may have a significantly lower threshold for the alteration in neural process–related cognitive function. A study evaluating cognitive function after thalamic DBS revealed a similar result, that is, that preexisting dysfunction in verbal fluency may predispose to further decline after DBS.14 Conversely, some patients unexpectedly have improved cognition following MRgFUS thalamotomy. One possible explanation for this beneficial cognitive outcome with MRgFUS thalamotomy is appropriate control of the lesion size under real-time MR thermometry. As is well known, RF thalamotomy does not always guarantee the exact size in the optimal location in the thalamus. Hermann et al. showed that the mean size of lesions was larger in patients with Parkinson disease who suffered from aphasia after the surgical procedure.20 Therefore, optimal control of the lesion size as well as the exact location in the thalamic target can guarantee surgical safety and cognitive benefits from MRgFUS thalamotomy.

We also suggest that some score gains in the cognitive function test may be attributable to a repetitive practice effect; however, it is generally not easy to accustom oneself to some examinations following only one experience. Actually, Fields et al. countered this possibility by explaining that the most substantial score gain occurred after a 9-month test-retest interval rather than a short 4-month interval in their clinical study of unilateral thalamic stimulation for ET.14 Instead, it could be a secondary effect of widening the scope of daily activities due to the improvement in movement.

When considering the impact of tremor control on patient satisfaction and QOL, many studies have suggested overly positive outcomes of surgical procedures.14,18,24,29,38 Huss et al. demonstrated no difference in the change in reported QOL between bilateral Vim DBS and unilateral procedures, including DBS and MRgFUS thalamotomy.22 A randomized controlled study of MRgFUS thalamotomy described significant reductions of 46% in QUEST scores from baseline to 3 months after ablation as compared with a 3% reduction in the sham group.13 In particular, the authors found marked improvement in the psychosocial domain, which was one of the most important factors determining QOL in patients with ET.10,13 Therefore, tremor control and enhanced physical activities in daily living can result in better self-esteem and the restoration of social relationships and, consequently, great improvement in QOL. As observed in the present study, tolerable cognitive changes together with much improvement in QOL support MRgFUS thalamotomy as an acceptable treatment in terms of tremor control and safety apart from the neuropsychological impairment.

Study Limitations

The present study has several limitations. The small number of patients was a major shortcoming in analyzing the data. More clinical data are necessary to consolidate the results. In addition, we performed only left thalamotomy in all participants and thus could not compare the laterality effect of thalamotomy.

Conclusions

This study showed that MRgFUS thalamotomy has beneficial effects in reducing tremor and maintaining cognitive function in patients with ET. Although more long-term follow-up results are required to further solidify its effectiveness, MRgFUS thalamotomy can work as an emerging therapy to manage ET with cognitive stability as well as improved QOL.

Acknowledgments

We especially thank Itay Rachmilevitch and Eyal Zadicario, employees of InSightec (Haifa, Israel), for providing excellent technical assistance with MRgFUS. We also thank Ms. Eun Jung Kweon, RN, for providing clinical assistance and So Jeong Yang for helping with the assessment of patients via neuropsychological test batteries.

Disclosures

Dr. J. Chang received grants from the Michael J. Fox Foundation and the Focused Ultrasound Surgery Foundation while the study was being conducted.

Author Contributions

Conception and design: JW Chang. Acquisition of data: NY Jung, Park, WS Chang, HH Jung. Analysis and interpretation of data: NY Jung, Park, WS Chang, HH Jung. Drafting the article: NY Jung. Critically revising the article: all authors. Reviewed submitted version of manuscript: Park, WS Chang, HH Jung. Approved the final version of the manuscript on behalf of all authors: JW Chang. Study supervision: JW Chang.

References

  • 1

    Akbostanci MCSlavin KVBurchiel KJ: Stereotactic ventral intermedial thalamotomy for the treatment of essential tremor: results of a series of 37 patients. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 72:1741771999

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Almgren PEAndersson ALKullberg G: Differences in verbally expressed cognition following left and right ventrolateral thalamotomy. Scand J Psychol 10:2432491969

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Alomar SKing NKKTam JBari AAHamani CLozano AM: Speech and language adverse effects after thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation in patients with movement disorders: a meta-analysis. Mov Disord 32:53632017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Benito-León JLouis EDBermejo-Pareja F: Population-based case-control study of cognitive function in essential tremor. Neurology 66:69742006

  • 5

    Benito-León JLouis EDPosada IJSánchez-Ferro ÁTrincado RVillarejo A: Population-based case-control study of cognitive function in early Parkinson’s disease (NEDICES). J Neurol Sci 310:1761822011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Bermejo-Pareja FLouis EDBenito-León J: Risk of incident dementia in essential tremor: a population-based study. Mov Disord 22:157315802007

  • 7

    Blond SCaparros-Lefebvre DParker FAssaker RPetit HGuieu JD: Control of tremor and involuntary movement disorders by chronic stereotactic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. J Neurosurg 77:62681992

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Bond AEDallapiazza RHuss DWarren ALSperling SGwinn R: A randomized, sham-controlled trial of transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy trial for the treatment of tremor-dominant, idiopathic Parkinson disease. Neurosurgery 63 (Suppl 1):1542016 (Abstract)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Børretzen MNBjerknes SSæhle TSkjelland MSkogseid IMToft M: Long-term follow-up of thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor – patient satisfaction and mortality. BMC Neurol 14:1202014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Chandran VPal PK: Quality of life and its determinants in essential tremor. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 19:62652013

  • 11

    Chang WSJung HHKweon EJZadicario ERachmilevitch IChang JW: Unilateral magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor: practices and clinicoradiological outcomes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 86:2572642015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Dobrakowski PPMachowska-Majchrzak AKLabuz-Roszak BMajchrzak KGKluczewska EPierzchała KB: MR-guided focused ultrasound: a new generation treatment of Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor and neuropathic pain. Interv Neuroradiol 20:2752822014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Elias WJLipsman NOndo WGGhanouni PKim YGLee W: A randomized trial of focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor. N Engl J Med 375:7307392016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Fields JATröster AIWoods SPHigginson CIWilkinson SBLyons KE: Neuropsychological and quality of life outcomes 12 months after unilateral thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:3053112003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Fyfe I: Movement disorders: comparison of cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease and essential tremor. Nat Rev Neurol 13:2602017

  • 16

    Ghanouni PPauly KBElias WJHenderson JSheehan JMonteith S: Transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound: a review of the technologic and neurologic applications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 205:1501592015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Hariz GMBergenheim ATHariz MILindberg M: Assessment of ability/disability in patients treated with chronic thalamic stimulation for tremor. Mov Disord 13:78831998

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Hariz GMBlomstedt PKoskinen LO: Long-term effect of deep brain stimulation for essential tremor on activities of daily living and health-related quality of life. Acta Neurol Scand 118:3873942008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Heber IACoenen VAReetz KSchulz JBHoellig AFimm B: Cognitive effects of deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: evaluation at 1 and 6 years. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 120:156915772013

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Hermann KTurner JWGillingham FJGaze RM: The effects of destructive lesions and stimulation of the basal ganglia on speech mechanisms. Confin Neurol 27:1972071966

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Hugdahl KWester K: Neurocognitive correlates of stereotactic thalamotomy and thalamic stimulation in Parkinsonian patients. Brain Cogn 42:2312522000

  • 22

    Huss DSDallapiazza RFShah BBHarrison MBDiamond JElias WJ: Functional assessment and quality of life in essential tremor with bilateral or unilateral DBS and focused ultrasound thalamotomy. Mov Disord 30:193719432015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Jurko MFAndy OJ: Psychological changes correlated with thalamotomy site. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 36:8468521973

  • 24

    Kim MJung NYPark CKChang WSJung HHChang JW: Comparative evaluation of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery for essential tremor. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 95:2792862017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Klein JCLorenz BKang JSBaudrexel SSeifried Cvan de Loo S: Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter involvement in essential tremor. Hum Brain Mapp 32:8969042011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Kumar KKelly MToth C: Deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus for control of tremors in Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 72:47611999

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Loher TJGutbrod KFravi NLPohle TBurgunder JMKrauss JK: Thalamic stimulation for tremor. Subtle changes in episodic memory are related to stimulation per se and not to a microthalamotomy effect. J Neurol 250:7077132003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Lombardi WJWoolston DJRoberts JWGross RE: Cognitive deficits in patients with essential tremor. Neurology 57:7857902001

  • 29

    Nijhawan SRBanks SJAziz TZPanourias IGregory RYianni J: Changes in cognition and health-related quality of life with unilateral thalamotomy for Parkinsonian tremor. J Clin Neurosci 16:44502009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Niranjan ARaju SSKooshkabadi AMonaco E IIIFlickinger JCLunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for essential tremor: retrospective analysis of a 19-year experience. Mov Disord 32:7697772017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Petrovici JN: Speech disturbances following stereotaxic surgery in ventrolateral thalamus. Neurosurg Rev 3:1891951980

  • 32

    Rodríguez Cruz PMVargas AFernández-Carballal CGarbizu JDe La Casa-Fages BGrandas F: Long-term thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: clinical outcome and stimulation parameters. Mov Disord Clin Pract 3:5675722016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Sánchez-Ferro ÁBenito-León JLouis EDContador IHernández-Gallego JPuertas-Martín V: Cognition in non-demented Parkinson’s disease vs essential tremor: a population-based study. Acta Neurol Scand 136:3934002017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Schuurman PRBruins JMerkus MPBosch DASpeelman JD: A comparison of neuropsychological effects of thalamotomy and thalamic stimulation. Neurology 59:123212392002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Speelman JDSchuurman Rde Bie RMEsselink RABosch DA: Stereotactic neurosurgery for tremor. Mov Disord 17 (Suppl 3):S84S882002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Stacy MAElble RJOndo WGWu SCHulihan J: Assessment of interrater and intrarater reliability of the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale in essential tremor. Mov Disord 22:8338382007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Thawani SPSchupf NLouis ED: Essential tremor is associated with dementia: prospective population-based study in New York. Neurology 73:6216252009

  • 38

    Tröster AIFields JAPahwa RWilkinson SBStrait-Tröster KALyons K: Neuropsychological and quality of life outcome after thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. Neurology 53:177417801999

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Tröster AIPahwa RFields JATanner CMLyons KE: Quality of life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST): development and initial validation. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 11:3673732005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Wester KHugdahl K: Thalamotomy and thalamic stimulation: effects on cognition. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 69:80851997

  • 41

    Witjas TCarron RKrack PEusebio AVaugoyeau MHariz M: A prospective single-blind study of Gamma Knife thalamotomy for tremor. Neurology 85:156215682015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Zaaroor MSinai AGoldsher DEran ANassar MSchlesinger I: Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for tremor: a report of 30 Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor cases. J Neurosurg [epub ahead of print February 24 2017. DOI: 10.3171/2016.10.JNS16758]

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Article Information

Contributor Notes

Correspondence Jin Woo Chang: Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. jchang@yuhs.ac.ACCOMPANYING EDITORIAL DOI: 10.3171/2017.11.FOCUS17682.INCLUDE WHEN CITING DOI: 10.3171/2017.11.FOCUS17625.Disclosures Dr. J. Chang received grants from the Michael J. Fox Foundation and the Focused Ultrasound Surgery Foundation while the study was being conducted.
Headings
Figures
References
  • 1

    Akbostanci MCSlavin KVBurchiel KJ: Stereotactic ventral intermedial thalamotomy for the treatment of essential tremor: results of a series of 37 patients. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 72:1741771999

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Almgren PEAndersson ALKullberg G: Differences in verbally expressed cognition following left and right ventrolateral thalamotomy. Scand J Psychol 10:2432491969

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Alomar SKing NKKTam JBari AAHamani CLozano AM: Speech and language adverse effects after thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation in patients with movement disorders: a meta-analysis. Mov Disord 32:53632017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Benito-León JLouis EDBermejo-Pareja F: Population-based case-control study of cognitive function in essential tremor. Neurology 66:69742006

  • 5

    Benito-León JLouis EDPosada IJSánchez-Ferro ÁTrincado RVillarejo A: Population-based case-control study of cognitive function in early Parkinson’s disease (NEDICES). J Neurol Sci 310:1761822011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Bermejo-Pareja FLouis EDBenito-León J: Risk of incident dementia in essential tremor: a population-based study. Mov Disord 22:157315802007

  • 7

    Blond SCaparros-Lefebvre DParker FAssaker RPetit HGuieu JD: Control of tremor and involuntary movement disorders by chronic stereotactic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. J Neurosurg 77:62681992

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Bond AEDallapiazza RHuss DWarren ALSperling SGwinn R: A randomized, sham-controlled trial of transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy trial for the treatment of tremor-dominant, idiopathic Parkinson disease. Neurosurgery 63 (Suppl 1):1542016 (Abstract)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Børretzen MNBjerknes SSæhle TSkjelland MSkogseid IMToft M: Long-term follow-up of thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor – patient satisfaction and mortality. BMC Neurol 14:1202014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Chandran VPal PK: Quality of life and its determinants in essential tremor. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 19:62652013

  • 11

    Chang WSJung HHKweon EJZadicario ERachmilevitch IChang JW: Unilateral magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor: practices and clinicoradiological outcomes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 86:2572642015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Dobrakowski PPMachowska-Majchrzak AKLabuz-Roszak BMajchrzak KGKluczewska EPierzchała KB: MR-guided focused ultrasound: a new generation treatment of Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor and neuropathic pain. Interv Neuroradiol 20:2752822014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Elias WJLipsman NOndo WGGhanouni PKim YGLee W: A randomized trial of focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor. N Engl J Med 375:7307392016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Fields JATröster AIWoods SPHigginson CIWilkinson SBLyons KE: Neuropsychological and quality of life outcomes 12 months after unilateral thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:3053112003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Fyfe I: Movement disorders: comparison of cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease and essential tremor. Nat Rev Neurol 13:2602017

  • 16

    Ghanouni PPauly KBElias WJHenderson JSheehan JMonteith S: Transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound: a review of the technologic and neurologic applications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 205:1501592015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Hariz GMBergenheim ATHariz MILindberg M: Assessment of ability/disability in patients treated with chronic thalamic stimulation for tremor. Mov Disord 13:78831998

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Hariz GMBlomstedt PKoskinen LO: Long-term effect of deep brain stimulation for essential tremor on activities of daily living and health-related quality of life. Acta Neurol Scand 118:3873942008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Heber IACoenen VAReetz KSchulz JBHoellig AFimm B: Cognitive effects of deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: evaluation at 1 and 6 years. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 120:156915772013

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Hermann KTurner JWGillingham FJGaze RM: The effects of destructive lesions and stimulation of the basal ganglia on speech mechanisms. Confin Neurol 27:1972071966

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Hugdahl KWester K: Neurocognitive correlates of stereotactic thalamotomy and thalamic stimulation in Parkinsonian patients. Brain Cogn 42:2312522000

  • 22

    Huss DSDallapiazza RFShah BBHarrison MBDiamond JElias WJ: Functional assessment and quality of life in essential tremor with bilateral or unilateral DBS and focused ultrasound thalamotomy. Mov Disord 30:193719432015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Jurko MFAndy OJ: Psychological changes correlated with thalamotomy site. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 36:8468521973

  • 24

    Kim MJung NYPark CKChang WSJung HHChang JW: Comparative evaluation of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery for essential tremor. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 95:2792862017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Klein JCLorenz BKang JSBaudrexel SSeifried Cvan de Loo S: Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter involvement in essential tremor. Hum Brain Mapp 32:8969042011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Kumar KKelly MToth C: Deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus for control of tremors in Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 72:47611999

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Loher TJGutbrod KFravi NLPohle TBurgunder JMKrauss JK: Thalamic stimulation for tremor. Subtle changes in episodic memory are related to stimulation per se and not to a microthalamotomy effect. J Neurol 250:7077132003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Lombardi WJWoolston DJRoberts JWGross RE: Cognitive deficits in patients with essential tremor. Neurology 57:7857902001

  • 29

    Nijhawan SRBanks SJAziz TZPanourias IGregory RYianni J: Changes in cognition and health-related quality of life with unilateral thalamotomy for Parkinsonian tremor. J Clin Neurosci 16:44502009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Niranjan ARaju SSKooshkabadi AMonaco E IIIFlickinger JCLunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for essential tremor: retrospective analysis of a 19-year experience. Mov Disord 32:7697772017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Petrovici JN: Speech disturbances following stereotaxic surgery in ventrolateral thalamus. Neurosurg Rev 3:1891951980

  • 32

    Rodríguez Cruz PMVargas AFernández-Carballal CGarbizu JDe La Casa-Fages BGrandas F: Long-term thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: clinical outcome and stimulation parameters. Mov Disord Clin Pract 3:5675722016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Sánchez-Ferro ÁBenito-León JLouis EDContador IHernández-Gallego JPuertas-Martín V: Cognition in non-demented Parkinson’s disease vs essential tremor: a population-based study. Acta Neurol Scand 136:3934002017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Schuurman PRBruins JMerkus MPBosch DASpeelman JD: A comparison of neuropsychological effects of thalamotomy and thalamic stimulation. Neurology 59:123212392002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Speelman JDSchuurman Rde Bie RMEsselink RABosch DA: Stereotactic neurosurgery for tremor. Mov Disord 17 (Suppl 3):S84S882002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Stacy MAElble RJOndo WGWu SCHulihan J: Assessment of interrater and intrarater reliability of the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale in essential tremor. Mov Disord 22:8338382007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Thawani SPSchupf NLouis ED: Essential tremor is associated with dementia: prospective population-based study in New York. Neurology 73:6216252009

  • 38

    Tröster AIFields JAPahwa RWilkinson SBStrait-Tröster KALyons K: Neuropsychological and quality of life outcome after thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. Neurology 53:177417801999

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Tröster AIPahwa RFields JATanner CMLyons KE: Quality of life in Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST): development and initial validation. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 11:3673732005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Wester KHugdahl K: Thalamotomy and thalamic stimulation: effects on cognition. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 69:80851997

  • 41

    Witjas TCarron RKrack PEusebio AVaugoyeau MHariz M: A prospective single-blind study of Gamma Knife thalamotomy for tremor. Neurology 85:156215682015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Zaaroor MSinai AGoldsher DEran ANassar MSchlesinger I: Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for tremor: a report of 30 Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor cases. J Neurosurg [epub ahead of print February 24 2017. DOI: 10.3171/2016.10.JNS16758]

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
TrendMD
Cited By
Metrics

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1156 1076 127
PDF Downloads 435 348 27
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0
PubMed
Google Scholar