The 100 most cited articles in metastatic spine disease

View More View Less
  • Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Free access

OBJECTIVE

Despite the growing neurosurgical literature, a subset of pioneering studies have significantly impacted the field of metastatic spine disease. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the 100 most frequently cited articles in the field.

METHODS

A keyword search using the Thomson Reuters Web of Science was conducted to identify articles relevant to the field of metastatic spine disease. The results were filtered based on title and abstract analysis to identify the 100 most cited articles. Statistical analysis was used to characterize journal frequency, past and current citations, citation distribution over time, and author frequency.

RESULTS

The total number of citations for the final 100 articles ranged from 74 to 1169. Articles selected for the final list were published between 1940 and 2009. The years in which the greatest numbers of top-100 studies were published were 1990 and 2005, and the greatest number of citations occurred in 2012. The majority of articles were published in the journals Spine (15), Cancer (11), and the Journal of Neurosurgery (9). Forty-four individuals were listed as authors on 2 articles, 9 were listed as authors on 3 articles, and 2 were listed as authors on 4 articles in the top 100 list. The most cited article was the work by Batson (1169 citations) that was published in 1940 and described the role of the vertebral veins in the spread of metastases. The second most cited article was Patchell's 2005 study (594 citations) discussing decompressive resection of spinal cord metastases. The third most cited article was the 1978 study by Gilbert that evaluated treatment of epidural spinal cord compression due to metastatic tumor (560 citations).

CONCLUSIONS

The field of metastatic spine disease has witnessed numerous milestones and so it is increasingly important to recognize studies that have influenced the field. In this bibliographic study the authors identified and analyzed the most influential articles in the field of metastatic spine disease.

ABBREVIATIONSMESCC = metastatic epidural spinal cord compression.

OBJECTIVE

Despite the growing neurosurgical literature, a subset of pioneering studies have significantly impacted the field of metastatic spine disease. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the 100 most frequently cited articles in the field.

METHODS

A keyword search using the Thomson Reuters Web of Science was conducted to identify articles relevant to the field of metastatic spine disease. The results were filtered based on title and abstract analysis to identify the 100 most cited articles. Statistical analysis was used to characterize journal frequency, past and current citations, citation distribution over time, and author frequency.

RESULTS

The total number of citations for the final 100 articles ranged from 74 to 1169. Articles selected for the final list were published between 1940 and 2009. The years in which the greatest numbers of top-100 studies were published were 1990 and 2005, and the greatest number of citations occurred in 2012. The majority of articles were published in the journals Spine (15), Cancer (11), and the Journal of Neurosurgery (9). Forty-four individuals were listed as authors on 2 articles, 9 were listed as authors on 3 articles, and 2 were listed as authors on 4 articles in the top 100 list. The most cited article was the work by Batson (1169 citations) that was published in 1940 and described the role of the vertebral veins in the spread of metastases. The second most cited article was Patchell's 2005 study (594 citations) discussing decompressive resection of spinal cord metastases. The third most cited article was the 1978 study by Gilbert that evaluated treatment of epidural spinal cord compression due to metastatic tumor (560 citations).

CONCLUSIONS

The field of metastatic spine disease has witnessed numerous milestones and so it is increasingly important to recognize studies that have influenced the field. In this bibliographic study the authors identified and analyzed the most influential articles in the field of metastatic spine disease.

ABBREVIATIONSMESCC = metastatic epidural spinal cord compression.

The clinical management of metastatic diseases of the spine is often debatable due to a lack of consensus regarding appropriate therapies. Throughout the growing body of neurosurgical literature addressing the subject, particular studies have significantly contributed to knowledge of the field. Due to the wealth of research articles relating to metastatic spine disease, critically important work often gets overlooked. Methods that help quantify the impact of scientific articles have been previously described.30,80 One such tool, citation analysis, is based on the principle that the greater an article's influence, the more frequently it would be cited. In this report, we use citation analysis to identify the 100 most cited scientific articles that pertain to metastatic disease of the spine.

Methods

All databases and journals included in Thomson Reuters Web of Science were used to identify eligible studies. The literature query was conducted using the following search command: (spine or spinal or vertebral or column or canal) and (primary or metastatic or metastasis or neoplas* or tumor*).

The search was performed using the “basic search” feature under the “title” category and included all articles published before 2016. The initial search yielded 19,831 results. The search results were then sorted on the basis of decreasing citation count.

Upon review of the title and abstract of the articles from the search output, and elimination of the impertinent articles, we identified the top 150 most cited articles on metastatic spine disease. We extended our search to beyond the top 100 articles in order to allow for replacing articles that might be excluded due to excessive self-citation. Only 2 papers66,75 were excluded on the basis of having a large percentage of self-citations (> 40% of the total number of citations being in other works by authors of those papers). The remaining articles were ranked based on citation count, and the top 100 most cited articles were included in the final list.

Results

A total of 19,831 articles matched our search criteria. Based on title and abstract review, the 100 most cited articles relevant to metastatic spine disease were selected. The top 100 articles, including their authors and year of publication, article topic, article summary, article type, level of evidence, number of citations, citations in the past year (2015), and citation rate (average citations per year) are shown in Table 1. The total number of citations for the fi-nal 100 articles ranged from 74 to 1169, with an average of 148.4 citations per article. The oldest article was published in 1940 by Batson9 and described the role of vertebral veins in metastatic spread to the spine. The most recent article was the 2009 study by Rose et al.,71 evaluating the risk of fracture after image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The most productive publication years were 1990 and 2005, with 7 articles having been published in each year (Fig. 1). Articles were published in 40 different journals (Fig. 2). The most studies were published in the journal Spine (15), followed by Cancer (11), and the Journal of Neurosurgery (9). Eighty-three first authors contributed to articles on the final list. Eleven authors were credited with having multiple articles on the list. Two of these 11 individuals, Tomita90–93 and Harrington,41–44 were listed as authors in 4 articles on the final list.

TABLE 1.

Top 100 articles in metastatic spine disease based on total number of citations

RankAuthors & YearArticle TopicArticle SummaryArticle TypeLevel of EvidenceCitationsCitations in Past YearCitation Rate (Rank)
1Batson, 1940OtherAnatomical vascular basis of spread of abdominopelvic malignancies to the spineOriginal researchNA11692515.4 (9th)
2Patchell et al., 2005Comparison of mgmt optionsIn pts w/spinal cord compression, decompressive surgery plus postop radiotherapy is superior to radiotherapy aloneRCT, multicenterI5949854.0 (1st)
3Gilbert et al., 1978ReviewReviews Dx & Tx of epidural compression due to metastatic spine diseaseRetrospective comparative studyIII5601014.7 (10th)
4Weill et al., 1996SurgeryPain & instability due to metastatic spine disease can be treated effectively by vertebroplastyCase seriesIV4451422.3 (4th)
5Tomita et al., 2001SurgeryProposes a prognostic scoring system for mgmt of spinal metastasesCase seriesIV3416022.7 (3rd)
6Young et al., 1980SurgeryLaminectomy followed by radiation is as effective as radiation only for mgmt of epidural spinal metastasesRCT, multicenterI28988.0 (34th)
7Barron et al., 1959AutopsyDescriptive analysis of 127 autopsies of pts w/metastatic spine diseaseCase seriesIV27934.9 (62nd)
8Greenberg et al., 1980Comparison of mgmt optionsProposes use of high-dose steroids combined w/radiotherapy for mgmt of cord compressionCase seriesIV26037.2 (42nd)
9Gerszten et al., 2007RadiationPropose single-fraction radiosurgery to improve long-term palliation especially for pts w/solitary metastasisProspective cohort studyII2573728.6 (2nd)
10Constans et al., 1983Natural historyDescriptive analysis of authors' experience w/600 cases of spinal metastasesCase seriesIV24277.3 (38th)
11Tokuhashi et al., 2005PrognosisProposes a prognostic scoring system for mgmt of spinal metastasesSemi-prospective cohort studyIII2376621.5 (5th)
12Tokuhashi et al., 1990PrognosisProposes a prognostic scoring system for mgmt of spinal metastasesCase seriesIV232148.9 (28th)
13Maranzano & Latini, 1995Comparison of mgmt optionsOutcome for pts w/metastatic spinal cord compression treated w/RT plus steroids, & in select cases in combination w/surgeryProspective cohort studyII2323011.0 (18th)
14Black, 1979ReviewGuideline for mgmt of spinal metastasesReviewV19855.4 (58th)
15Ryu et al., 2003RadiationProposes radiosurgery to be effective for mgmt of spinal metastases especially for solitary lesionsCase seriesIV1931116.1 (8th)
16Wong et al., 1990GeneralPathologic & radiologic review of spine of 832 pts w/pre-mortem Dx of spinal metastasisCase seriesNA192227.4 (37th)
17Gokaslan et al., 1998SurgeryOutcome of anterior approach for corpectomy & stabilization for metastases limited to thoracic spineCase seriesIV1861410.3 (23rd)
18Harrington, 1981SurgeryOutcome of corpectomy & use of methylmethacrylate for VB replacement for mgmt of fracture due to spinal metastasesCase seriesIV18145.2 (60th)
19Byrne et al., 1992ReviewReview of contemporary knowledge on spinal cord compression due to epidural metastasesReviewV17567.3 (39th)
20Harrington et al., 1986ReviewReview of contemporary knowledge on metastatic spine diseaseReviewV17365.8 (53rd)
21Yamada et al., 2008RadiationProposes radiosurgery to be effective & safe for mgmt of spinal metastasesCase seriesIV1713321.4 (6th)
22Chang et al., 2007RadiationProposes stereotactic body radiotherapy to be safe & effective for mgmt of spinal metastasesPhase I/II clinical trialII1672218.6 (7th)
23Algra et al., 1991RadiologyMRI is superior to bone scintigraphy in detection of vertebral metastasesProspective cohort studyII16506.6 (46th)
24Bach et al., 1990Natural historyDescriptive analysis of authors' experience w/398 cases of spinal metastasesCase seriesIV15345.9 (52nd)
25Bauer & Wedin, 1995PrognosisProposes prognostic model for survival in pts w/spinal metastases after surgeryRetrospective comparative studyIII152277.2 (40th)
26Tomita et al., 199490SurgeryOutcomes of total en bloc spondylectomy in pts w/lumbar & thoracic spinal metastasesCase seriesIV149136.8 (44th)
27Wise et al., 1999SurgeryOutcome of surgical intervention in pts w/spinal metastasesCase seriesIV145188.5 (30th)
28Rades et al., 2005Comparison of mgmt optionsComparison of different RT schedulesRetrospective comparative studyIII1451713.2 (12th)
29Edelson et al., 1972Intramedullary metastasesDescriptive analysis of 9 cases of intramedullary spinal cord metastasesCase seriesIV13823.1 (85th)
30Harrington, 1984SurgeryOutcome of corpectomy & use of methylmethacrylate for VB replacement for mgmt of fracture due to spinal metastasesCase seriesIV13514.2 (69th)
31Weigel et al., 1999SurgeryOutcome of surgical mgmt of spinal metastasesCase seriesIV133107.8 (35th)
32Klimo et al., 2005Comparison of mgmt optionsComparison of outcomes of surgery alone versus radiation alone for mgmt of spinal metastasesReview, meta-analysisIII1271311.5 (16th)
33Livingston & Perrin, 1978SurgeryOutcome of surgical mgmt of 100 consecutive pts w/spinal metastasesCase seriesIV12623.3 (82nd)
34Wang et al., 2004SurgeryOutcome of posterolateral transpedicular approach in single stage in pts w/epidural metastatic spine tumorsCase seriesIV1261510.5 (21st)
35Stark et al., 1982Natural historyDescriptive analysis of authors' experience in managing 131 pts w/spinal metastasesSurveyIV125103.7 (78th)
36Barragán-Campos et al., 2006SurgeryComplications of vertebroplasty in 117 pts w/spinal metastasesCase seriesIV125112.5 (13th)
37Sørensen et al., 1990Natural historyOutcome for pts w/epidural spinal metastases causing cord or cauda equina compressionCase seriesIV12404.8 (64th)
38Helweg-Larsen et al., 2000PrognosisStudy of prognostic value of multiple variables on survival & gait in 153 pts w/spinal metastases causing cord compressionProspective cohort studyII12167.6 (36th)
39Schaberg & Gainor, 1985Natural historyFrequency & natural history of disseminated carcinoma to the vertebral columnCase seriesIV118123.8 (74th)
40Maranzano et al., 2005Comparison of mgmt optionsComparison of 2 radiotherapy regimens in pts w/metastatic spinal cord compressionRCT, multicenterII118610.7 (19th)
41Erlich & Davis, 1978Glioblastoma metastasesClinical & pathologic characteristics of 5 pts w/metastases of glioblastoma to the spineCase seriesIV11423.0 (88th)
42Avrahami et al., 1989RadiologyDescribes utility of MRI in Dx of spinal metastasesCase seriesIV11464.2 (68th)
43van der Linden et al., 2005PrognosisProposes a scoring model to predict overall survival in pts w/spinal metastasesRCTI1141910.4 (22nd)
44Klimo & Schmidt, 2004ReviewReview of surgical mgmt of spinal metastasesReviewV11489.5 (26th)
45Sundaresan et al., 2002SurgeryOutcome of surgical intervention in pts w/solitary metastatic spine diseaseCase seriesIV114218.1 (32nd)
46Ibrahim et al., 2008SurgeryQuality of life outcome of surgical intervention in pts w/spinal bony metastasesProspective cohort study, multicenterII1132114.1 (11th)
47Vecht et al., 1989Comparison of mgmt optionsComparison of effectiveness of different steroid dose scheduling in pain relief in pts w/spinal metastasesRCTII11334.2 (72nd)
48Akeyson & McCutcheon, 1996SurgeryOutcome spondylectomy, VB reconstruction, & posterior stabilization in pts w/multi-level thoracolumbar spinal metastasesCase seriesIV111115.6 (54th)
49Scoville et al., 1967SurgeryOutcome of use of acrylic plastic for VB replacement in animal model & 3 ptsCase reportIV11112.3 (95th)
50Vertosick & Selker, 1990Glioblastoma metastasesCase series of 11 pts w/metastatic spread of glioblastoma to the spineCase seriesIV10984.2 (71st)
51Dunn et al., 1980SurgeryOutcome of surgical mgmt of pts w/spinal epidural metastasesCase seriesIV10713.0 (90th)
52Grem et al., 1985Intramedullary metastasesReview of 5 new & 50 previously reported cases of intramedullary spinal cord metastasesCase series, reviewIII10713.5 (81st)
53Castillo et al., 2000RadiologyComparison of diffusion-weighted MRI versus non-contrast MRI in Dx of vertebral metastasesCase controlIII10456.5 (47th)
54Ryu et al., 2004RadiationDescriptive analysis of tumor & pain control after radiosurgery for spinal metastasesCase seriesIV10388.6 (29th)
55Wright, 1963SurgeryOutcome of surgery for mgmt of spinal epidural metastasesCase seriesIV102101.9 (98th)
56Bilsky et al., 2000SurgeryOutcome of posterolateral transpedicular approach w/circumferential fusion in pts w/spinal metastasesCase seriesIV102146.4 (49th)
57Ghogawala et al., 2001RadiationIn pts undergoing surgical intervention for metastatic spinal cord compression, preop radiation increases risk of wound complicationsCase seriesIV10266.8 (43rd)
58Weissman, 1988ReviewReview of steroid therapy for mgmt of brain metastases & epidural spinal metastases causing cord compressionReviewV10233.6 (80th)
59Gerszten et al., 2005RadiationStereotactic radiosurgery is an effective modality for mgmt of pts w/spinal metastases w/renal cell carcinomaCase seriesIV10289.3 (27th)
60Tomita et al., 1983RadiationOutcome of RT in pts w/spinal epidural metastases w/complete myelographic blockCase seriesIV10203.1 (87th)
61Enkaoua et al., 1997PrognosisEvaluation of Tokuhashi score as prognostic tool in pts w/spinal metastasesCase seriesIV10065.3 (59th)
62Arguello et al., 1990OtherDescription of sequential events that result in spread of primary tumor to the spine in an animal modelOriginal researchV9933.8 (73rd)
63Gibbs et al., 2007RadiosurgeryOutcome of image-guided robotic radiosurgery in 74 pts w/spinal metastasesCase seriesIV99411.0 (17th)
64DeWald et al., 1985SurgeryProposes prophylactic spinal stabilization for pain relief & neurological status improvement in pts w/metastatic spine diseaseCase seriesIV9733.1 (86th)
65Schiff & O'Neill, 1996Intramedullary metastasesDescriptive analysis of authors' experience in mgmt of 40 pts w/intramedullary spinal metastasesCase seriesIV9724.9 (63rd)
66Chang et al., 2004RadiationCT-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy is a safe & effective mgmt option for pts w/spinal metastasesProspective cohort studyII9728.1 (33rd)
67Gellad et al., 1990RadiologyPreop embolization reduces intraoperative blood loss in pts w/vascular spinal metastases undergoing surgeryCase seriesIV9623.7 (76th)
68Rodichok et al., 1981OtherProposes a clinical & radiological decision-making process to improve early Dx of epidural spine metastasesProspective cohort studyII9602.7 (92nd)
69Taneichi et al., 1997PrognosisProposes a prognostic model to predict VB collapse in thoracolumbar spinal metastasesCase seriesIV95135.0 (61st)
70Milker-Zabel et al., 2003RadiationFractionated conformal & intensity-modulated RT are effective & safe in Tx of recurrent vertebral metastasesCase seriesIV9487.2 (41st)
71Bilsky et al., 1999ReviewReview of Dx & mgmt of metastatic spinal tumorReviewV9435.5 (55th)
72Sioutos et al., 1995PrognosisStudy of factors that affect survival in pts w/spinal metastasesCase seriesIV93124.4 (65th)
73Harrington, 1988SurgeryOutcome of anterior decompression & stabilization in pts w/pathologic fractures of the spine due to metastasesCase seriesIV9203.3 (83rd)
74Zhou et al., 2002RadiologyImaging characteristics of benign & metastatic vertebral compression fractures based on diffusion MRICase seriesIV9166.5 (48th)
75Rodriguez & Dinapoli, 1980ReviewReview of clinical presentation & mgmt of spinal cord compression due to epidural metastasesReviewV8912.5 (94th)
76Helweg-Larsen, 1996Natural historyDescriptive analysis of authors' experience in mgmt of 153 pts w/metastatic spinal cord compressionProspective cohort studyII8814.4 (66th)
77Connolly et al., 1996Intramedullary metastasesCase series of 3 pts w/intramedullary spinal metastasesCase report, reviewIV8734.4 (67th)
78Hirabayashi et al., 2003SurgeryOutcome of palliative surgery in 81 pts w/spinal metastasesCase seriesIV8766.7 (45th)
79Böhm & Huber, 2002SurgeryOutcome of surgical mgmt of 18 pts w/metastatic spine diseaseCase seriesIV8696.1 (50th)
80Rose et al., 2009RadiationStudy of factors that predict vertebral fracture after RT to the spineCase seriesIV862112.3 (14th)
81Fornasier & Horne, 1975AutopsyUtility of radiography for detection of spinal metastases at autopsyCase seriesIV8542.1 (96th)
82Witham et al., 2006ReviewReview of surgical mgmt of MESCCReviewV85158.5 (31st)
83Tatsui et al., 1996PrognosisImpact of primary tumor type & timing of Dx of spinal metastasis on survival rate in pts w/metastatic spine diseaseCase seriesIV8424.2 (70th)
84Byun et al., 2002RadiologySuccessful therapy of vertebral bone metastases appears as decreased signal intensity on diffusion-weighted MRICase controlIII8375.9 (51st)
85Helweg-Larsen & Sørensen, 1994OtherDescription of signs & Sx w/which pts w/spinal metastases presentCase seriesIV8243.7 (75th)
86Maranzano et al., 1991RadiationOutcome of RT in pts w/metastatic spinal cord compressionProspective cohort studyII8223.3 (84th)
87Sahgal et al., 2009RadiationStereotactic body RT is effective & safe for Tx of previously irradiated spinal metastasesCase seriesIV821511.7 (15th)
88Carmody et al., 1989RadiologyComparison of MRI & myelography to detect spinal metastasesCase seriesIV81163.0 (89th)
89Tomita et al., 199492SurgeryOutcome of 2-step total en bloc spondylectomy & combined anterior-posterior decompression in 24 pts w/solitary spinal metastasisCase seriesIV8103.7 (77th)
90White et al., 1971SurgeryOutcome of decompressive laminectomy in 226 pts w/metastatic spinal cord compressionCase seriesIV8051.8 (99th)
91Cole & Patchell, 2008ReviewReview of Dx & mgmt of metastatic spinal cord compressionReviewV7809.8 (25th)
92Gynning et al., 1961RadiologyUtility of radiostronium in localization of & response to hormonal & RT for spinal metastases from primary breast cancerCase seriesIV77121.4 (100th)
93Sundaresan et al., 1995SurgeryOutcome of surgical mgmt of metastatic spinal cord compressionCase seriesIV7703.7 (79th)
94Jellinger et al., 1979AutopsySeries of 7 autopsy cases of intramedullary spinal metastasesReviewIV7632.1 (97th)
95Smoker et al., 1987RadiologyComparison of MRI & myelography to detect spinal metastasesCase seriesIV7612.6 (93rd)
96Herneth et al., 2002RadiologyUtility of apparent diffusion coefficient in detecting vertebral metastases & pathologic compression fracturesCase seriesIV7505.4 (56th)
97Rades et al., 2002PrognosisEvaluation of prognostic value of time of motor deficit development before RT in predicting functional outcomeProspective cohort studyII7545.4 (57th)
98Bartels et al., 2008ReviewReview of Tx options for spinal epidural metastasesReviewV74410.1 (24th)
99Kaemmerlen et al., 1989SurgeryEvaluation of prognostic value of time of motor deficit development before RT in predicting functional outcomeReviewV7412.8 (91st)
100Leithner et al., 2008PrognosisReview of Tx options for spinal epidural metastasesRetrospective comparative studyIII741510.6 (20th)

Dx = diagnosis; mgmt = management; NA = not available; pts = patients; RCT = randomized controlled trial; RT = radiation therapy; Sx = symptoms; Tx = treatment; VB = vertebral body.

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Graph displaying the number of top 100 articles published each year from 1940 through 2015.

FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Graph displaying the number of top 100 articles published by each journal.

The most frequently cited article was also the earliest publication in the list, the above-mentioned article by Batson, published in 1940 in the Annals of Surgery9 and describing the architecture of the vertebral veins and their role in the metastatic spread of tumors. This article has been consistently cited since its publication, receiving the most citations (27) in 1997 (Fig. 3). The second most cited article was the 2005 article by Patchell et al.,65 which assessed the efficacy of decompressive surgery for spinal cord compression due to metastatic cancer. Citations of this article peaked in 2012, with 92 citations in that year alone (Fig. 4). The 1978 study by Gilbert et al.,36 published in Annals of Neurology, is the third most cited article. This study discusses diagnostic criteria and treatment options for patients with epidural spinal cord compression due to metastatic tumor. This article was most cited in 1985, with 28 citations during that year (Fig. 5).

FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Graph displaying citations per year of Batson's 1940 article titled “The function of the vertebral veins and their role in the spread of metastases.”9

FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Graph displaying citations per year for the 2005 article by Patchell et al. titled “Direct decompressive surgical resection in the treatment of spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer: a randomised trial.”65

FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Graph displaying the citations per year for the 1978 article by Gilbert et al. titled “Epidural spinal cord compression from metastatic tumor: diagnosis and treatment.”36

We defined citation rate as the number of citations per year. The ranking of citation rates for each article on the final list is shown in Table 2. The 2005 study by Patchell et al. had the highest overall citation rate, with an average of 54.0 citations per year.65 This was followed by the 2007 article by Gerszten et al.33 (28.6 citations per year) on radiosurgery for spinal metastases and the 2001 article by Tomita et al.91 (22.7 citations per year), which discussed a novel prognostic scoring system for surgical management of spinal metastases.

TABLE 2.

Top 100 articles on metastatic spine disease ranked on the basis of citation rate (citations per year)

RankArticleCitation Rate
1Patchell et al., 200554.0
2Gerszten et al., 200528.6
3Tomita et al., 200122.7
4Weill et al., 199622.3
5Tokuhashi et al., 200521.5
6Yamada et al., 200821.4
7Chang et al., 200718.6
8Ryu et al., 200316.1
9Batson, 194015.4
10Gilbert et al., 197814.7
11Ibrahim et al., 200814.1
12Rades et al., 200513.2
13Barragán-Campos et al., 200612.5
14Rose et al., 200912.3
15Sahgal et al., 200911.7
16Klimo et al., 200511.5
18Gibbs et al., 200711.0
17Maranzano et al., 199111.0
19Maranzano et al., 200510.7
20Leithner et al., 200810.6
21Wang et al., 200410.5
22van der Linden et al., 200510.4
23Gokaslan et al., 199810.3
24Bartels et al., 200810.1
25Cole & Patchell, 20089.8
26Klimo & Schmidt, 20049.5
27Gerszten et al., 20079.3
28Tokuhashi et al., 19908.9
29Ryu et al., 20048.6
30Wise et al., 19998.5
31Witham et al., 20068.5
33Chang et al., 20048.1
32Sundaresan et al., 19958.1
34Young et al., 19808.0
35Weigel et al., 19997.8
36Helweg-Larsen, 19967.6
37Wong et al., 19907.4
39Byrne, 19927.3
38Constans et al., 19837.3
41Bauer & Wedin, 19957.2
40Greenberg et al., 19807.2
42Milker-Zabel et al., 20037.2
44Ghogawala et al., 20016.8
43Tomita et al., 1994926.8
45Hirabayashi et al., 20036.7
46Algra et al., 19916.6
47Castillo et al., 20006.5
48Zhou et al., 20026.5
49Bilsky et al., 19996.4
50Böhm & Huber, 20026.1
51Bach et al., 19905.9
52Byun et al., 20025.9
53Harrington, 19845.8
54Akeyson & McCutcheon, 19965.6
55Bilsky et al., 20005.5
56Black, 19795.4
57Herneth et al., 20025.4
58Rades et al., 20025.4
59Enkaoua et al., 19975.3
60Harrington, 19885.2
61Taneichi et al., 19975.0
62Barron et al., 19594.9
63Schiff & O'Neill, 19964.9
64Sørensen et al., 19904.8
67Connolly et al., 19964.4
66Helweg-Larsen et al., 20004.4
65Sioutos et al., 19954.4
69Avrahami et al., 19894.2
68Harrington, 19864.2
72Tatsui et al., 19964.2
70Vecht et al., 19894.2
71Vertosick et al., 19904.2
74Arguello et al., 19903.8
73Schaberg & Gainor, 19853.8
76Gellad et al., 19903.7
77Helweg-Larsen & Sørensen, 19943.7
75Stark et al., 19823.7
79Sundaresan et al., 20023.7
78Tomita et al., 19833.7
80Weissman, 19883.6
81Grem et al., 19853.5
83Harrington, 19813.3
82Livingston et al., 19783.3
84Maranzano et al., 19953.3
87DeWald et al., 19853.1
85Edelson et al., 19723.1
86Tomita et al., 1994903.1
90Carmody et al., 19893.0
89Dunn et al., 19803.0
88Erlich & Davis, 19783.0
91Kaemmerlen et al., 19892.8
92Rodichok et al., 19812.7
93Smoker et al., 19872.6
94Rodriguez & Dinapoli, 19802.5
95Scoville et al., 19672.3
96Fornasier & Horne, 19752.1
97Jellinger et al., 19792.1
98Wright, 19631.9
99White et al., 19711.8
100Gynning et al., 19611.4

We also measured the number of citations an article received during the past year (2015). The article cited most frequently was written by Patchell et al. and published in 2005 and was cited 98 times during 2015.65 We also performed a linear regression to determine the relationship between an article's total number of citations and the number of times it was cited in the previous year. Our results determined that the total number of citations of an article correlates with the number of times it was cited in the preceding year (Fig. 6).

FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Correlation between an article's total citations and number citations in the past year (2015).

Discussion

Neurosurgical literature is replete with novel studies that, while helpful in advancing the field, pose burdens for physicians in their pursuit to identify studies that have significantly impacted neurosurgical practice. Our aim was to identify the 100 most cited articles on metastatic spine disease. These frequently cited articles provide insight into the founding and development of the field, as well as current trends. In this study we performed citation analysis, wherein we measure the impact of articles, authors, and journals based on the number of times a work has been cited.

The most cited article in metastatic spine disease was Batson's 1940 article in the Annals of Surgery.9 In this landmark study, the author provides an anatomical explanation for the dissemination of spinal tumors from abdominopelvic primary tumors. In this paper, Batson described the anatomical distribution of the vertebral venous system in detail and, based on data from vessel injection experiments whereby dissemination was tracked, proposed an explanation for the metastatic spread of tumors from the abdomen or pelvis to the spine. This study has been consistently cited since publication in 1940, with a total of 1169 citations, and it received the greatest number of citations in 1998. Batson's work is considered a “classic,” and some suggest that older papers are more likely to be cited.54

The second most cited article was the 2005 paper by Patchell et al., which sought to determine the role of surgery in the treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC).65 In their prospective randomized trial, the authors demonstrated that decompressive surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy resulted in improved patient outcomes (i.e., retention of the ability to walk) compared with radiotherapy alone. The results indicate that surgery followed by radiotherapy may well be the most effective treatment for MESCC. Despite not being the most cited article overall, the study is accumulating citations at a rapid pace. Since its publication in 2005, it has been cited 594 times, with an average of 54 citations per year. This is comparatively faster than the Batson study, which has received an average of 15.4 citations per year. Although recent, the influence of the Patchell et al. study is demonstrated by the rate with which this paper has been cited in the neurosurgical literature.

The third most cited article was written by Gilbert et al. and published in 1978.36 In this report, the authors compared the efficacy of radiotherapy alone versus laminectomy followed by radiotherapy for spinal cord compression due to extradural tumors. They concluded that radiotherapy alone was as effective as laminectomy plus radiotherapy in treating epidural spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer. Based on these results, surgical treatment (i.e., laminectomy) for MESCC was deemed unnecessary. However, the work by Patchell and colleagues challenged this notion by demonstrating the efficacy of decompressive surgery for management of MESCC.

Among the most frequently cited articles, publication dates ranged from 1940 (for Batson's article) to as recent as 2009 (for the study by Rose et al., which evaluated the risk of fracture following single fraction image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy for spinal metastases71). Articles relating to the topic of metastatic spine disease have become increasingly frequent, with most articles having been published in 1990 and 2005. The reason underlying these publication trends is not fully understood. An argument could be made that historical developments in the neurosurgical field, such as novel technologies or techniques, could be responsible for certain publication trends. For example, our data show a dramatic rise in the number of top 100 articles published during the 1980s. During this time, the first MRI of the spine was performed, and publication trends may reflect the emergence of this technology.

If an article were indeed influential, as measured by number of citations, we reasoned that it would continue to have an impact on current practice. One would expect that influential articles would continue to be cited as new articles in the field emerge. To address this we analyzed the relationship of the number of citations within the preceding year (2015) as a function of total number of citations of an article. As predicted, we found a positive correlation between these 2 factors, suggesting that impactful studies are more likely to be referenced by recently published articles and continue to influence current work.

The largest number of articles pertaining to metastatic spine disease were published in the journal Spine. It is important to note that a journal's contribution to a particular field may be the result of the number of years it has been in circulation and/or the frequency with which it is published. Spine is a biweekly peer-reviewed journal and thus its appearance on the top 100 list may reflect the frequency of publication. Furthermore, journals or articles that cover multiple disciplines, will at times attract a larger reader base, which can increase the exposure of an article. Other authors have studied the effect of degree of disciplinarity on citation impact and have found this relationship to be complex.107

Although citation analysis is a powerful tool for measuring an article's impact, citation count alone does not completely reveal an article's influence on the field. Self-citation is arguably the most confounding factor influencing citation analysis.51,59 For different reasons, authors may cite their own papers, which increases citation numbers and the eventual impact of their article. This can skew citation analysis, as it becomes difficult to distinguish between articles that are frequently referenced due to their impact on the field and those that are frequently self-cited. Within our final list, nearly all articles were cited by 1 or more of their authors in subsequent publications at least once. For most articles, self-citations comprised a small fraction of the total citations. In some cases, a considerable percentage of the total citations were made by the articles' authors. More detailed analysis is warranted to determine the prevalence of self-citation and its influence on an article's impact. Another limitation of citation analysis is the concept of “obliteration by incorporation,” which is based on the idea that information from “classic” papers is cited less frequently as it is absorbed into the body of existing knowledge.63 Other limitations that have been described elsewhere include “incomplete citations,” whereby certain citations are made as a means to persuade the reader rather than recognize work that has contributed to the field.54 It is important that future studies address how these factors influence citation trends and that a novel method—one that accounts for these factors—is developed to improve our system for classifying the impact of an article.

Conclusions

Although citation analysis does not address the quality of a scientific report, it serves as a reliable tool for determining the impact that an article, author, and journal has had on the scientific community. In this study we have attempted to develop a resource with detailed information on the 100 most cited articles on metastatic spine disease. We provide insights into the historical development and recent advances within the field.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Ms. Linda Hartman and the librarian staff at University of Pittsburgh Health Sciences Library for their instruction and advice on the study.

References

  • 1

    Akeyson EW, & McCutcheon IE: Single-stage posterior vertebrectomy and replacement combined with posterior instrumentation for spinal metastasis. J Neurosurg 85:211220, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Algra PR, , Bloem JL, , Tissing H, , Falke THM, , Arndt JW, & Verboom LJ: Detection of vertebral metastases: comparison between MR imaging and bone scintigraphy. Radiographics 11:219232, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Arguello F, , Baggs RB, , Duerst RE, , Johnstone L, , McQueen K, & Frantz CN: Pathogenesis of vertebral metastasis and epidural spinal cord compression. Cancer 65:98106, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Avrahami E, , Tadmor R, , Dally O, & Hadar H: Early MR demonstration of spinal metastases in patients with normal radiographs and CT and radionuclide bone scans. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13:598602, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Bach F, , Larsen BH, , Rohde K, , Børgesen SE, , Gjerris F, & Bøge-Rasmussen T, : Metastatic spinal cord compression. Occurrence, symptoms, clinical presentations and prognosis in 398 patients with spinal cord compression. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 107:3743, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Barragán-Campos HM, , Vallée JN, , Lo D, , Cormier E, , Jean B, & Rose M, : Percutaneous vertebroplasty for spinal metastases: complications. Radiology 238:354362, 2006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Barron KD, , Hirano A, , Araki S, & Terry RD: Experiences with metastatic neoplasms involving the spinal cord. Neurology 9:91106, 1959

  • 8

    Bartels RHMA, , van der Linden YM, & van der Graaf WTA: Spinal extradural metastasis: review of current treatment options. CA Cancer J Clin 58:245259, 2008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Batson OV: The function of the vertebral veins and their role in the spread of metastases. Ann Surg 112:138149, 1940

  • 10

    Bauer HCF, & Wedin R: Survival after surgery for spinal and extremity metastases. Prognostication in 241 patients. Acta Orthop Scand 66:143146, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Bilsky MH, , Boland P, , Lis E, , Raizer JJ, & Healey JH: Single-stage posterolateral transpedicle approach for spondylectomy, epidural decompression, and circumferential fusion of spinal metastases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 25:22402250, 2000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Bilsky MH, , Lis E, , Raizer J, , Lee H, & Boland P: The diagnosis and treatment of metastatic spinal tumor. Oncologist 4:459469, 1999

  • 13

    Black P: Spinal metastasis: current status and recommended guidelines for management. Neurosurgery 5:726746, 1979

  • 14

    Böhm P, & Huber J: The surgical treatment of bony metastases of the spine and limbs. J Bone Joint Surg Br 84:521529, 2002

  • 15

    Byrne TN: Spinal cord compression from epidural metastases. N Engl J Med 327:614619, 1992

  • 16

    Byun WM, , Shin SO, , Chang Y, , Lee SJ, , Finsterbusch J, & Frahm J: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of metastatic disease of the spine: assessment of response to therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:906912, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Carmody RF, , Yang PJ, , Seeley GW, , Seeger JF, , Unger EC, & Johnson JE: Spinal cord compression due to metastatic disease: diagnosis with MR imaging versus myelography. Radiology 173:225229, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Castillo M, , Arbelaez A, , Smith JK, & Fisher LL: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging offers no advantage over routine noncontrast MR imaging in the detection of vertebral metastases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21:948953, 2000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Chang EL, , Shiu AS, , Lii MF, , Rhines LD, , Mendel E, & Mahajan A, : Phase I clinical evaluation of near-simultaneous computed tomographic image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:12881294, 2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Chang EL, , Shiu AS, , Mendel E, , Mathews LA, , Mahajan A, & Allen PK, : Phase I/II study of stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastasis and its pattern of failure. J Neurosurg Spine 7:151160, 2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Cole JS, & Patchell RA: Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. Lancet Neurol 7:459466, 2008

  • 22

    Connolly ES Jr, , Winfree CJ, , McCormick PC, , Cruz M, & Stein BM: Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis: report of three cases and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 46:329338, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Constans JP, , de Divitiis E, , Donzelli R, , Spaziante R, , Meder JF, & Haye C: Spinal metastases with neurological manifestations. Review of 600 cases. J Neurosurg 59:111118, 1983

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    DeWald RL, , Bridwell KH, , Prodromas C, & Rodts MF: Reconstructive spinal surgery as palliation for metastatic malignancies of the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 10:2126, 1985

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Dunn RC Jr, , Kelly WA, , Wohns RNW, & Howe JF: Spinal epidural neoplasia. A 15-year review of the results of surgical therapy. J Neurosurg 52:4751, 1980

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Edelson RN, , Deck MDF, & Posner JB: Intramedullary spinal cord metastases. Clinical and radiographic findings in nine cases. Neurology 22:12221231, 1972

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Enkaoua EA, , Doursounian L, , Chatellier G, , Mabesoone F, , Aimard T, & Saillant G: Vertebral metastases: a critical appreciation of the preoperative prognostic Tokuhashi score in a series of 71 cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 22:22932298, 1997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Erlich SS, & Davis RL: Spinal subarachnoid metastasis from primary intracranial glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer 42:28542864, 1978

  • 29

    Fornasier VL, & Horne JG: Metastases to the vertebral column. Cancer 36:590594, 1975

  • 30

    Garfield E: Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation. Science 178:471479, 1972

  • 31

    Gellad FE, , Sadato N, , Numaguchi Y, & Levine AM: Vascular metastatic lesions of the spine: preoperative embolization. Radiology 176:683686, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Gerszten PC, , Burton SA, , Ozhasoglu C, , Vogel WJ, , Welch WC, & Baar J, : Stereotactic radiosurgery for spinal metastases from renal cell carcinoma. J Neurosurg Spine 3:288295, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Gerszten PC, , Burton SA, , Ozhasoglu C, & Welch WC: Radiosurgery for spinal metastases: clinical experience in 500 cases from a single institution. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32:193199, 2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Ghogawala Z, , Mansfield FL, & Borges LF: Spinal radiation before surgical decompression adversely affects outcomes of surgery for symptomatic metastatic spinal cord compression. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 26:818824, 2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Gibbs IC, , Kamnerdsupaphon P, , Ryu MR, , Dodd R, , Kiernan M, & Chang SD, : Image-guided robotic radiosurgery for spinal metastases. Radiother Oncol 82:185190, 2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Gilbert RW, , Kim JH, & Posner JB: Epidural spinal cord compression from metastatic tumor: diagnosis and treatment. Ann Neurol 3:4051, 1978

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Gokaslan ZL, , York JE, , Walsh GL, , McCutcheon IE, , Lang FF, & Putnam JB Jr, : Transthoracic vertebrectomy for metastatic spinal tumors. J Neurosurg 89:599609, 1998

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Greenberg HS, , Kim JH, & Posner JB: Epidural spinal cord compression from metastatic tumor: results with a new treatment protocol. Ann Neurol 8:361366, 1980

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Grem JL, , Burgess J, & Trump DL: Clinical features and natural history of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. Cancer 56:23052314, 1985

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Gynning I, , Langelan P, , Lindberg S, & Waldeskog B: Localization with Sr85 of spinal metastases in mammary cancer and changes in uptake after hormone and roentgen therapy. Acta Radiol 55:119128, 1961

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Harrington KD: Anterior cord decompression and spinal stabilization for patients with metastatic lesions of the spine. J Neurosurg 61:107117, 1984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Harrington KD: Anterior decompression and stabilization of the spine as a treatment for vertebral collapse and spinal cord compression from metastatic malignancy. C Clin Orthop Relat Res 223:177197, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    Harrington KD: Metastatic disease of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am 68:11101115, 1986

  • 44

    Harrington KD: The use of methylmethacrylate for vertebral-body replacement and anterior stabilization of pathological fracture-dislocations of the spine due to metastatic malignant disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am 63:3646, 1981

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Helweg-Larsen S: Clinical outcome in metastatic spinal cord compression. A prospective study of 153 patients. Acta Neurol Scand 94:269275, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Helweg-Larsen S, & Sørensen PS: Symptoms and signs in metastatic spinal cord compression: a study of progression from first symptom until diagnosis in 153 patients.. Eur J Cancer 30A:396398, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47

    Helweg-Larsen S, , Sørensen PS, & Kreiner S: Prognostic factors in metastatic spinal cord compression: a prospective study using multivariate analysis of variables influencing survival and gait function in 153 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46:11631169, 2000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    Herneth AM, , Philipp MO, , Naude J, , Funovics M, , Beichel RR, & Bammer R, : Vertebral metastases: assessment with apparent diffusion coefficient. Radiology 225:889894, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49

    Hirabayashi H, , Ebara S, , Kinoshita T, , Yuzawa Y, , Nakamura I, & Takahashi J, : Clinical outcome and survival after palliative surgery for spinal metastases: palliative surgery in spinal metastases. Cancer 97:476484, 2003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50

    Ibrahim A, , Crockard A, , Antonietti P, , Boriani S, , Bünger C, & Gasbarrini A, : Does spinal surgery improve the quality of life for those with extradural (spinal) osseous metastases? An international multicenter prospective observational study of 223 patients. Invited submission from the Joint Section Meeting on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2007. J Neurosurg Spine 8:271278, 2008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    Ioannidis JPBK, , Boyack KW, , Small H, , Sorensen AA, & Klavans R: Bibliometrics: Is your most cited work your best?. Nature 514:561562, 2014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    Jellinger K, , Kothbauer P, , Sunder-Plassmann E, & Weiss R: Intramedullary spinal cord metastases. J Neurol 220:3141, 1979

  • 53

    Kaemmerlen P, , Thiesse P, , Jonas P, , Bérard CL, , Duquesnel J, & Bascoulergue Y, : Percutaneous injection of orthopedic cement in metastatic vertebral lesions.. N Engl J Med 321:121, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54

    Kelly JC, , Glynn RW, , O'Briain DE, , Felle P, & McCabe JP: The 100 classic papers of orthopaedic surgery: a bibliometric analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 92:13381343, 2010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    Klimo P Jr, & Schmidt MH: Surgical management of spinal metastases. Oncologist 9:188196, 2004

  • 56

    Klimo P Jr, , Thompson CJ, , Kestle JRW, & Schmidt MH: A meta-analysis of surgery versus conventional radiotherapy for the treatment of metastatic spinal epidural disease. Neuro Oncol 7:6476, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57

    Leithner A, , Radl R, , Gruber G, , Hochegger M, , Leithner K, & Welkerling H, : Predictive value of seven preoperative prognostic scoring systems for spinal metastases. Eur Spine J 17:14881495, 2008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    Livingston KE, & Perrin RG: The neurosurgical management of spinal metastases causing cord and cauda equina compression. J Neurosurg 49:839843, 1978

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    MacRoberts MH, & MacRoberts BR: Problems of citation analysis.. Soc Work Res Abstr 28:4, 1992. (Letter)

  • 60

    Maranzano E, , Bellavita R, , Rossi R, , De Angelis V, , Frattegiani A, & Bagnoli R, : Short-course versus split-course radiotherapy in metastatic spinal cord compression: results of a phase III, randomized, multicenter trial. J Clin Oncol 23:33583365, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    Maranzano E, & Latini P: Effectiveness of radiation therapy without surgery in metastatic spinal cord compression: final results from a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32:959967, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    Maranzano E, , Latini P, , Checcaglini F, , Ricci S, , Panizza BM, & Aristei C, : Radiation therapy in metastatic spinal cord compression. A prospective analysis of 105 consecutive patients. Cancer 67:13111317, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63

    McCain KW: Assessing obliteration by incorporation in a full-text database: JSTOR, economics, and the concept of “bounded rationality.”. Scientometrics 101:14451459, 2014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    Milker-Zabel S, , Zabel A, , Thilmann C, , Schlegel W, , Wannenmacher M, & Debus J: Clinical results of retreatment of vertebral bone metastases by stereotactic conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55:162167, 2003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65

    Patchell RA, , Tibbs PA, , Regine WF, , Payne R, , Saris S, & Kryscio RJ, : Direct decompressive surgical resection in the treatment of spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet 366:643648, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66

    Rades D, , Fehlauer F, , Schulte R, , Veninga T, , Stalpers LJ, & Basic H, : Prognostic factors for local control and survival after radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression. J Clin Oncol 24:33883393, 2006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    Rades D, , Heidenreich F, & Karstens JH: Final results of a prospective study of the prognostic value of the time to develop motor deficits before irradiation in metastatic spinal cord compression. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:975979, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    Rades D, , Stalpers LJA, , Veninga T, , Schulte R, , Hoskin PJ, & Obralic N, : Evaluation of five radiation schedules and prognostic factors for metastatic spinal cord compression. J Clin Oncol 23:33663375, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    Rodichok LD, , Harper GR, , Ruckdeschel JC, , Price A, , Roberson G, & Barron KD, : Early diagnosis of spinal epidural metastases. Am J Med 70:11811188, 1981

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    Rodriguez M, & Dinapoli RP: Spinal cord compression: with special reference to metastatic epidural tumors. Mayo Clin Proc 55:442448, 1980

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    Rose PS, , Laufer I, , Boland PJ, , Hanover A, , Bilsky MH, & Yamada J, : Risk of fracture after single fraction image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy to spinal metastases. J Clin Oncol 27:50755079, 2009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    Ryu S, , Rock J, , Rosenblum M, & Kim JH: Patterns of failure after single-dose radiosurgery for spinal metastasis. J Neurosurg 101:Suppl 3 402405, 2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    Ryu S, , Yin FF, , Rock J, , Zhu J, , Chu A, & Kagan E, : Image-guided and intensity-modulated radiosurgery for patients with spinal metastasis. Cancer 97:20132018, 2003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    Sahgal A, , Ames C, , Chou D, , Ma L, , Huang K, & Xu W, : Stereotactic body radiotherapy is effective salvage therapy for patients with prior radiation of spinal metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74:723731, 2009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    Sahgal A, , Larson DA, & Chang EL: Stereotactic body radiosurgery for spinal metastases: a critical review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:652665, 2008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76

    Schaberg J, & Gainor BJ: A profile of metastatic carcinoma of the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 10:1920, 1985

  • 77

    Schiff D, & O'Neill BP: Intramedullary spinal cord metastases: clinical features and treatment outcome. Neurology 47:906912, 1996

  • 78

    Scoville WB, , Palmer AH, , Samra K, & Chong G: Use of acrylic plastic for vertebral replacement of fixation in metastatic disease of spine. J Neurosurg 27:274279, 1967

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    Sioutos PJ, , Arbit E, , Meshulam CF, & Galicich JH: Spinal metastases from solid tumors. Analysis of factors affecting survival. Cancer 76:14531459, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    Skovrlj B, , Steinberger J, , Guzman JZ, , Overley SC, , Qureshi SA, & Caridi JM, : The 100 most influential articles in cervical spine surgery. Global Spine J 6:6979, 2016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81

    Smoker WRK, , Godersky JC, , Knutzon RK, , Keyes WD, , Norman D, & Bergman W: The role of MR imaging in evaluating metastatic spinal disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 149:12411248, 1987

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    Sørensen S, , Børgesen SE, , Rohde K, , Rasmusson B, , Bach F, & Bøge-Rasmussen T, : Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. Results of treatment and survival. Cancer 65:15021508, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83

    Stark RJ, , Henson RA, & Evans SJW: Spinal metastases. A retrospective survey from a general hospital. Brain 105:189213, 1982

  • 84

    Sundaresan N, , Rothman A, , Manhart K, & Kelliher K: Surgery for solitary metastases of the spine: rationale and results of treatment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 27:18021806, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    Sundaresan N, , Sachdev VP, , Holland JF, , Moore F, , Sung M, & Paciucci PA, : Surgical treatment of spinal cord compression from epidural metastasis. J Clin Oncol 13:23302335, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    Taneichi H, , Kaneda K, , Takeda N, , Abumi K, & Satoh S: Risk factors and probability of vertebral body collapse in metastases of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 22:239245, 1997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    Tatsui H, , Onomura T, , Morishita S, , Oketa M, & Inoue T: Survival rates of patients with metastatic spinal cancer after scintigraphic detection of abnormal radioactive accumulation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 21:21432148, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88

    Tokuhashi Y, , Matsuzaki H, , Oda H, , Oshima M, & Ryu J: A revised scoring system for preoperative evaluation of metastatic spine tumor prognosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:21862191, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89

    Tokuhashi Y, , Matsuzaki H, , Toriyama S, , Kawano H, & Ohsaka S: Scoring system for the preoperative evaluation of metastatic spine tumor prognosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 15:11101113, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90

    Tomita K, , Kawahara N, , Baba H, , Tsuchiya H, , Nagata S, & Toribatake Y: Total en bloc spondylectomy for solitary spinal metastases. Int Orthop 18:291298, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    Tomita K, , Kawahara N, , Kobayashi T, , Yoshida A, , Murakami H, & Akamaru T: Surgical strategy for spinal metastases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 26:298306, 2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    Tomita K, , Toribatake Y, , Kawahara N, , Ohnari H, & Kose H: Total en bloc spondylectomy and circumspinal decompression for solitary spinal metastasis. Paraplegia 32:3646, 1994

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93

    Tomita T, , Galicich JH, & Sundaresan N: Radiation therapy for spinal epidural metastases with complete block. Acta Radiol Oncol 22:135143, 1983

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    van der Linden YM, , Dijkstra SP, , Vonk EJA, , Marijnen CAM, & Leer JWH: Prediction of survival in patients with metastases in the spinal column: results based on a random-ized trial of radiotherapy. Cancer 103:320328, 2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    Vecht CJ, , Haaxma-Reiche H, , van Putten WLJ, , de Visser M, , Vries EP, & Twijnstra A: Initial bolus of conventional versus high-dose dexamethasone in metastatic spinal cord compression. Neurology 39:12551257, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96

    Vertosick FT Jr, & Selker RG: Brain stem and spinal metastases of supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme: a clinical series. Neurosurgery 27:516522, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97

    Wang JC, , Boland P, , Mitra N, , Yamada Y, , Lis E, & Stubblefield M, : Single-stage posterolateral transpedicular approach for resection of epidural metastatic spine tumors involving the vertebral body with circumferential reconstruction: results in 140 patients. J Neurosurg Spine 1:287298, 2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    Weigel B, , Maghsudi M, , Neumann C, , Kretschmer R, , Müller FJ, & Nerlich M: Surgical management of symptomatic spinal metastases. Postoperative outcome and quality of life. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 24:22402246, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99

    Weill A, , Chiras J, , Simon JM, , Rose M, , Sola-Martinez T, & Enkaoua E: Spinal metastases: indications for and results of percutaneous injection of acrylic surgical cement. Radiology 199:241247, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    Weissman DE: Glucocorticoid treatment for brain metastases and epidural spinal cord compression: a review. J Clin Oncol 6:543551, 1988

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101

    White WA, , Patterson RH Jr, & Bergland RM: Role of surgery in treatment of spinal cord compression by metastatic neoplasm. Cancer 27:558561, 1971

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    Wise JJ, , Fischgrund JS, , Herkowitz HN, , Montgomery D, & Kurz LT: Complication, survival rates, and risk factors of surgery for metastatic disease of the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 24:19431951, 1999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    Witham TF, , Khavkin YA, , Gallia GL, , Wolinsky JP, & Gokaslan ZL: Surgery insight: current management of epidural spinal cord compression from metastatic spine disease. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2:8794, 116, 2006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    Wong DA, , Fornasier VL, & MacNab I: Spinal metastases: the obvious, the occult, and the impostors. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 15:14, 1990

  • 105

    Wright RL: Malignant tumors in spinal extradural space: results of surgical treatment. Ann Surg 157:227231, 1963

  • 106

    Yamada Y, , Bilsky MH, , Lovelock DM, , Venkatraman ES, , Toner S, & Johnson J, : High-dose, single-fraction image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for metastatic spinal lesions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:484490, 2008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107

    Yegros-Yegros A, , Rafols I, & D'Este P: Does interdisciplinary research lead to higher citation impact? The different effect of proximal and distal interdisciplinarity.. PLoS One 10:e0135095, 2015

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 108

    Young RF, , Post EM, & King GA: Treatment of spinal epidural metastases. Randomized prospective comparison of laminectomy and radiotherapy. J Neurosurg 53:741748, 1980

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109

    Zhou XJ, , Leeds NE, , McKinnon GC, & Kumar AJ: Characterization of benign and metastatic vertebral compression fractures with quantitative diffusion MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:165170, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Disclosures

The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

Author Contributions

Conception and design: Hamilton, Cohen, Alan. Acquisition of data: Cohen, Alan. Analysis and interpretation of data: Hamilton, Cohen. Drafting the article: Cohen, Alan, Zhou. Critically revising the article: Hamilton, Cohen, Alan. Reviewed submitted version of manuscript: Hamilton, Cohen, Alan. Approved the final version of the manuscript on behalf of all authors: Hamilton. Statistical analysis: Cohen. Study supervision: Hamilton.

Supplemental Information

Videos

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Contributor Notes

INCLUDE WHEN CITING DOI: 10.3171/2016.5.FOCUS16158.

Correspondence D. Kojo Hamilton, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St., Ste. B-400, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2582. email: kojohamilton1@gmail.com.
  • View in gallery

    Graph displaying the number of top 100 articles published each year from 1940 through 2015.

  • View in gallery

    Graph displaying the number of top 100 articles published by each journal.

  • View in gallery

    Graph displaying citations per year of Batson's 1940 article titled “The function of the vertebral veins and their role in the spread of metastases.”9

  • View in gallery

    Graph displaying citations per year for the 2005 article by Patchell et al. titled “Direct decompressive surgical resection in the treatment of spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer: a randomised trial.”65

  • View in gallery

    Graph displaying the citations per year for the 1978 article by Gilbert et al. titled “Epidural spinal cord compression from metastatic tumor: diagnosis and treatment.”36

  • View in gallery

    Correlation between an article's total citations and number citations in the past year (2015).

  • 1

    Akeyson EW, & McCutcheon IE: Single-stage posterior vertebrectomy and replacement combined with posterior instrumentation for spinal metastasis. J Neurosurg 85:211220, 1996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Algra PR, , Bloem JL, , Tissing H, , Falke THM, , Arndt JW, & Verboom LJ: Detection of vertebral metastases: comparison between MR imaging and bone scintigraphy. Radiographics 11:219232, 1991

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Arguello F, , Baggs RB, , Duerst RE, , Johnstone L, , McQueen K, & Frantz CN: Pathogenesis of vertebral metastasis and epidural spinal cord compression. Cancer 65:98106, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Avrahami E, , Tadmor R, , Dally O, & Hadar H: Early MR demonstration of spinal metastases in patients with normal radiographs and CT and radionuclide bone scans. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13:598602, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Bach F, , Larsen BH, , Rohde K, , Børgesen SE, , Gjerris F, & Bøge-Rasmussen T, : Metastatic spinal cord compression. Occurrence, symptoms, clinical presentations and prognosis in 398 patients with spinal cord compression. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 107:3743, 1990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Barragán-Campos HM, , Vallée JN, , Lo D, , Cormier E, , Jean B, & Rose M, : Percutaneous vertebroplasty for spinal metastases: complications. Radiology 238:354362, 2006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Barron KD, , Hirano A, , Araki S, & Terry RD: Experiences with metastatic neoplasms involving the spinal cord. Neurology 9:91106, 1959

  • 8

    Bartels RHMA, , van der Linden YM, & van der Graaf WTA: Spinal extradural metastasis: review of current treatment options. CA Cancer J Clin 58:245259, 2008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Batson OV: The function of the vertebral veins and their role in the spread of metastases. Ann Surg 112:138149, 1940

  • 10

    Bauer HCF, & Wedin R: Survival after surgery for spinal and extremity metastases. Prognostication in 241 patients. Acta Orthop Scand 66:143146, 1995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Bilsky MH, , Boland P, , Lis E, , Raizer JJ, & Healey JH: Single-stage posterolateral transpedicle approach for spondylectomy, epidural decompression, and circumferential fusion of spinal metastases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 25:22402250, 2000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Bilsky MH, , Lis E, , Raizer J, , Lee H, & Boland P: The diagnosis and treatment of metastatic spinal tumor. Oncologist 4:459469, 1999

  • 13

    Black P: Spinal metastasis: current status and recommended guidelines for management. Neurosurgery 5:726746, 1979

  • 14

    Böhm P, & Huber J: The surgical treatment of bony metastases of the spine and limbs. J Bone Joint Surg Br 84:521529, 2002

  • 15

    Byrne TN: Spinal cord compression from epidural metastases. N Engl J Med 327:614619, 1992

  • 16

    Byun WM, , Shin SO, , Chang Y, , Lee SJ, , Finsterbusch J, & Frahm J: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of metastatic disease of the spine: assessment of response to therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:906912, 2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Carmody RF, , Yang PJ, , Seeley GW, , Seeger JF, , Unger EC, & Johnson JE: Spinal cord compression due to metastatic disease: diagnosis with MR imaging versus myelography. Radiology 173:225229, 1989

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation