Top 25 Cited Gamma Knife® Surgery Articles - Volume 111

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Vincenzo Mingione, Chun Po Yen, Mary Lee Vance, Melita Steiner, Jason Sheehan, Edward R. Laws and Ladislau Steiner

Object

The authors report on a retrospective analysis of the imaging and clinical outcomes following gamma surgery in 100 patients with nonsecretory pituitary macroadenoma.

Methods

Between June 1989 and March 2004, 100 consecutive patients with nonsecretory pituitary macroadenoma were treated at the Lars Leksell Center for Gamma Surgery, University of Virginia Health System (Charlottesville, VA). Ninety-two patients had residual or recurrent macroadenoma following one or more surgical procedures. In eight patients, gamma surgery was the primary treatment. Ten patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy before the gamma surgery. Sixty-nine patients required hormone replacement therapy for one or more deficits before gamma knife treatment. Peripheral doses between 5 and 25 Gy (mean 18.5 Gy) were administered.

Imaging and endocrinological follow-up evaluations were performed in 90 patients; these studies ranged from 6 to 142 months (mean 44.9 months) and 6 to 127 months (mean 47.9 months), respectively. Tumor volume decreased in 59 patients (65.6%), remained unchanged in 24 (26.7%), and increased in seven (7.8%). The minimal effective peripheral dose was 12 Gy; peripheral doses greater than 20 Gy did not seem to provide additional benefit. Of 61 patients with a partially or fully functioning pituitary gland and follow-up data, 12 (19.7%) suffered new hormone deficits following gamma surgery. In patients with endocrinological follow-up data that had been collected over more than 2 years, the rate of new deficits was 25%. No neurological morbidity or death was related to treatment.

Conclusions

Current experience suggests that gamma surgery is an appropriate means of managing recurrent or residual nonsecretory pituitary macroadenoma following microsurgery and a primary treatment in selected patients. To evaluate definite rates of recurrence and new endocrine deficiencies, long-term follow-up studies are needed.

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Jason Sheehan, Hung-Chuan Pan, Matei Stroila and Ladislau Steiner

Object. Microvascular decompression (MVD) and percutaneous ablation surgery have historically been the treatments of choice for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Gamma knife surgery (GKS) has been used as an alternative, minimally invasive treatment in TN. In the present study, the authors evaluated the long-term results of GKS in the treatment of TN.

Methods. From 1996 to 2003, 151 cases of TN were treated with GKS. In this group, radiosurgery was performed once in 136 patients, twice in 14 patients, and three times in one patient. The types of TN were as follows: 122 patients with typical TN, three with atypical TN, four with multiple sclerosis—associated TN, and seven with TN and a history of a cavernous sinus tumor. In each case, the chosen radiosurgical target was located 2 to 4 mm anterior to the entry of the trigeminal nerve into the pons. The maximal radiation doses ranged from 50 to 90 Gy. The median age of the patients was 68 years (range 22–90 years), and the median time from diagnosis to GKS was 72 months (range 1–276 months). The median follow up was 19 months (range 2–96 months). Clinical outcomes and postradiosurgical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors that correlated with a favorable, pain-free outcome.

The mean time to relief of pain was 24 days (range 1–180 days). Forty-seven, 45, and 34% of patients were pain free without medication at the 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow ups, respectively. Ninety, 77, and 70% of patients experienced some improvement in pain at the 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow ups, respectively. Thirty-three (27%) of 122 patients with initial improvement subsequently experienced pain recurrence a median of 12 months (range 2–34 months) post-GKS. Among those whose symptoms recurred, 14 patients underwent additional GKS, six MVD, four glycerol injection, and one patient a percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy. Twelve patients (9%) suffered the onset of new facial numbness post-GKS. Changes on MR images post-GKS were noted in nine patients (7%). On univariate analysis, right-sided neuralgia (p = 0.0002) and a previous neurectomy (p = 0.04) correlated with a pain-free outcome; on multivariate analysis, both right-sided neuralgia (p = 0.032) and patient age (p = 0.05) were statistically significant. New onset of facial numbness following GKS correlated with undergoing more than one GKS (p = 0.002).

Conclusions. At the last follow up, GKS effected pain relief in 44% of patients. Some degree of pain improvement at 3 years post-GKS was noted in 70% of patients with TN. Although less effective than MVD, GKS remains a reasonable treatment option for those unwilling or unable to undergo more invasive surgical approaches and offers a low risk of side effects.

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Jason Sheehan, Douglas Kondziolka, John Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

Object. Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of death from cancer. More than 50% of those with small cell lung cancer develop a brain metastasis. Corticosteroid agents, radiotherapy, and resection have been the mainstays of treatment. Nonetheless, median survival for patients with small cell lung carcinoma metastasis is approximately 4 to 5 months after cranial irradiation. In this study the authors examine the efficacy of gamma knife surgery for treating recurrent small cell lung carcinoma metastases to the brain following tumor growth in patients who have previously undergone radiation therapy, and they evaluate factors affecting survival.

Methods. A retrospective review of 27 patients (47 recurrent small cell lung cancer brain metastases) undergoing radiosurgery was performed. Clinical and radiographic data obtained during a 14-year treatment period were collected. Multivariate analysis was utilized to determine significant prognostic factors influencing survival.

The overall median survival was 18 months after the diagnosis of brain metastases. In multivariate analysis, factors significantly affecting survival included: 1) tumor volume (p = 0.0042); 2) preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.0035); and 3) time between initial lung cancer diagnosis and development of brain metastasis (p = 0.0127). Postradiosurgical imaging of the brain metastases revealed that 62% decreased, 19% remained stable, and 19% eventually increased in size. One patient later underwent a craniotomy and tumor resection for a tumor refractory to radiosurgery and radiation therapy. In three patients new brain metastases were demonstrating on follow-up imaging.

Conclusions. Stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent small cell lung carcinoma metastases provided effective local tumor control in the majority of patients. Early detection of brain metastases, aggressive treatment of systemic disease, and a therapeutic strategy including radiosurgery can extend survival.