Noritaka Komune, Satoshi Matsuo, Koichi Miki, and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.
The application of the endoscope in the lateral skull base increases the importance of the middle ear cavity as the corridor to the skull base. The aim of this study was to define the middle ear as a route to the fundus (lateral end) of the internal acoustic canal and to propose feasible landmarks to the fundus.
This was a cadaveric study; 34 adult cadaveric temporal bones and 2 dry bones were dissected with the aid of the endoscope and microscope to show the anatomy of the transcanal approach to the middle ear and fundus of the internal acoustic canal.
In the middle ear cavity, the cochleariform process is one of the key landmarks for accessing the fundus of the internal acoustic canal. The triangle formed by the anterior and posterior edges of the overhang of the round window and the cochleariform process provides a landmark to start drilling the bone to access the fundus of the internal acoustic canal.
The external acoustic canal and middle ear cavity combined, using endoscopic guidance, can provide a route to the fundus of the internal acoustic canal. A triangular landmark crossing the promontory has been described for reaching the meatal fundus. This transcanal approach requires an understanding of the relationship between the middle ear cavity and the fundus of the internal acoustic canal and provides a potential new area of cooperation between otology and neurosurgery for accessing pathology in this and the bordering skull base.
Eduardo Carvalhal Ribas, Kaan Yagmurlu, Hung Tzu Wen, and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.
The purpose of this study was to describe the location of each white matter pathway in the area between the inferior limiting insular sulcus (ILS) and temporal horn that may be crossed in approaches through the temporal stem to the medial temporal lobe.
The fiber tracts in 14 adult cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were examined using the Klingler technique. The fiber dissections were completed in a stepwise manner, identifying each white matter pathway in different planes and describing its position in relation to the anterior end of the ILS.
The short-association fibers from the extreme capsule, which continue toward the operculae, are the most superficial subcortical layer deep to the ILS. The external capsule fibers are found deeper at an intermediate layer and are formed by the uncinate fasciculus, inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, and claustrocortical fibers in a sequential anteroposterior disposition. The anterior commissure forms the next deeper layer, and the optic radiations in the sublenticular part of the internal capsule represent the deepest layer. The uncinate fasciculus is found deep to the anterior third of the ILS, whereas the inferior frontooccipital fasciculus and optic radiations are found superficial and deep, respectively, at the posterior two-thirds of this length.
The authors' findings suggest that in the transsylvian approach, a 6-mm incision beginning just posterior to the limen insula through the ILS will cross the uncinate fasciculus but not the inferior frontooccipital fasciculus or optic radiations, but that longer incisions carry a risk to language and visual functions.
Tomas Poblete, Xiaochun Jiang, Noritaka Komune, Ken Matsushima, and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.
There continues to be confusion over how best to preserve the branches of the facial nerve to the frontalis muscle when elevating a frontotemporal (pterional) scalp flap. The object of this study was to examine the full course of the branches of the facial nerve that must be preserved to maintain innervation of the frontalis muscle during elevation of a frontotemporal scalp flap.
Dissection was performed to follow the temporal branches of facial nerves along their course in 5 adult, cadaveric heads (n = 10 extracranial facial nerves).
Preserving the nerves to the frontalis muscle requires an understanding of the course of the nerves in 3 areas. The first area is on the outer surface of the temporalis muscle lateral to the superior temporal line (STL) where the interfascial or subfascial approaches are applied, the second is in the area medial to the STL where subpericranial dissection is needed, and the third is along the STL. Preserving the nerves crossing the STL requires an understanding of the complex fascial relationships at this line. It is important to preserve the nerves crossing the lateral and medial parts of the exposure, and the continuity of the nerves as they pass across the STL. Prior descriptions have focused largely on the area superficial to the temporalis muscle lateral to the STL.
Using the interfascial-subpericranial flap and the subfascial-subpericranial flap avoids opening the layer of loose areolar tissue between the temporal fascia and galea in the area lateral to the STL and between the galea and frontal pericranium in the area medial to the STL. It also preserves the continuity of the nerve crossing the STL. This technique allows for the preservation of the nerves to the frontalis muscle along their entire trajectory, from the uppermost part of the parotid gland to the frontalis muscle.
Thomas Frigeri, Eliseu Paglioli, Evandro de Oliveira, and Albert L. Rhoton Jr.
Central Lobe consists of the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the Paracentral Lobule on the medial surface and corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to define the neural features, craniometric relationships, arterial supply, and venous drainage of the central lobe.
Cadaveric hemispheres dissected using microsurgical techniques provided the material for this study.
The coronal suture is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus.
The pre- and postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule have a morphological and functional anatomy that differentiates them from the remainder of their respective lobes and are considered by many as a single lobe. An understanding of the anatomical relationships of the central lobe can be useful in preoperative planning and in establishing reliable intraoperative landmarks.