Parkinson Disease: Top 25 Cited Articles
Jean A. Saint-Cyr, Tasnuva Hoque, Luiz C. M. Pereira, Jonathan O. Dostrovsky, William D. Hutchison, David J. Mikulis, Aviva Abosch, Elspeth Sime, Anthony E. Lang, and Andres M. Lozano
Object. The authors sought to determine the location of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes that were most effective in treating Parkinson disease (PD).
Methods. Fifty-four DBS electrodes were localized in and adjacent to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) postoperatively by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a series of 29 patients in whom electrodes were implanted for the treatment of medically refractory PD, and for whom quantitative clinical assessments were available both pre- and postoperatively. A novel MR imaging sequence was developed that optimized visualization of the STN. The coordinates of the tips of these electrodes were calculated three dimensionally and the results were normalized and corrected for individual differences by using intraoperative neurophysiological data (mean 5.13 mm caudal to the midcommissural point [MCP], 8.46 mm inferior to the anterior commissure—posterior commissure [AC—PC], and 10.2 mm lateral to the midline).
Despite reported concerns about distortion on the MR image, reconstructions provided consistent data for the localization of electrodes. The neurosurgical procedures used, which were guided by combined neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods, resulted in the consistent placement of DBS electrodes in the subthalamus and mesencephalon such that the electrode contacts passed through the STN and dorsally adjacent fields of Forel (FF) and zona incerta (ZI). The mean location of the clinically effective contacts was in the anterodorsal STN (mean 1.62 mm posterior to the MCP, 2.47 mm inferior to the AC—PC, and 11.72 mm lateral to the midline). Clinically effective stimulation was most commonly directed at the anterodorsal STN, with the current spreading into the dorsally adjacent FF and ZI.
Conclusions. The anatomical localization of clinically effective electrode contacts provided in this study yields useful information for the postoperative programming of DBS electrodes.
Ahmed Alkhani and Andres M. Lozano
Object. The authors conducted an evidence-based review of contemporary published articles on pallidotomy to obtain an appraisal of this procedure in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD).
Methods. A search of the Pubmed database performed using the key word “pallidotomy” yielded 263 articles cited between January 1, 1992, and July 1, 1999. Articles that included original, nonduplicated descriptions of patients with PD treated with radiofrequency pallidotomy were selected.
In 85 articles identified for critical review, 1959 patients with PD underwent pallidotomies at 40 centers in 12 countries. There were 1735 unilateral (88.6%) and 224 bilateral procedures (11.4%). The mean age of the patients was 61.4 ± 3.6 years and the mean duration of PD symptoms in these patients was 12.3 ± 1.9 years. Microelectrode recordings were used in 46.2% of cases. Outcomes were objectively documented using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in 501 (25.6%) of the cases at 6 months and in 218 (11.1%) of the cases at 1 year. There was a consensus on the benefits of pallidotomy for off period motor function and on period, drug-induced dyskinesias, with variations in the extent of symptomatic benefit across studies. At the 1-year assessment, the mean improvement in the UPDRS motor score during off periods was 45.3% and the mean improvement in contralateral dyskinesias during on periods was 86.4%. The overall mortality rate was 0.4% and the rate of persistent adverse effects was estimated at 14%. Major adverse events, including intracerebral hemorrhages, contralateral weakness, and visual field defects, occurred in 5.3% of patients reported.
Conclusions. Unilateral pallidotomy is effective and relatively safe in the treatment of PD; however, limited data are available on the long-term outcome of this procedure.