Parkinson Disease: Top 25 Cited Articles
Joachim K. Krauss, Thomas J. Loher, Ralf Weigel, H. Holger Capelle, Sabine Weber, and Jean-Marc Burgunder
Object. The authors studied the long-term efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus up to 2 years postoperatively in patients with primary non-DYT1 generalized dystonia or choreoathetosis. The results are briefly compared with those reported for DBS in DYT1 dystonia (Oppenheim dystonia), which is caused by the DYT1 gene.
Methods. Enrollment in this prospective expanded pilot study was limited to adult patients with severely disabling, medically refractory non-DYT1 generalized dystonia or choreoathetosis. Six consecutive patients underwent follow-up examinations at defined intervals of 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years postsurgery. There were five women and one man, and their mean age at surgery was 45.5 years. Formal assessments included both the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia scale and the recently developed Unified Dystonia Rating Scale. Two patients had primary generalized non-DYT1 dystonia, and four suffered from choreoathetosis secondary to infantile cerebral palsy. Bilateral quadripolar DBS electrodes were implanted in all instances, except in one patient with markedly asymmetrical symptoms. There were no adverse events related to surgery.
The Burke-Fahn-Marsden scores in the two patients with generalized dystonia improved by 78 and 71% at 3 months, by 82 and 69% at 1 year, and by 78 and 70% at 2 years postoperatively. This was paralleled by marked amelioration of disability scores. The mean improvement in Burke-Fahn-Marsden scores in patients with choreoathetosis was 12% at 3 months, 29% at 1 year, and 23% at 2 years postoperatively, which was not significant. Two of these patients thought that they had achieved marked improvement at 2 years postoperatively, although results of objective evaluations were less impressive. In these two patients there was a minor but stable improvement in disability scores. All patients had an improvement in pain scores at the 2-year follow-up review. Medication was tapered off in both patients with generalized dystonia and reduced in two of the patients with choreoathetosis. All stimulation-induced side effects were reversible on adjustment of the DBS settings. Energy consumption of the batteries was considerably higher than in patients with Parkinson disease.
Conclusions. Chronic pallidal DBS is a safe and effective procedure in generalized non-DYT1 dystonia, and it may become the procedure of choice in patients with medically refractory dystonia. Postoperative improvement of choreoathetosis is more modest and varied, and subjective ratings of outcome may exceed objective evaluations.
Joachim K. Krauss, J. Michael Desaloms, Eugene C. Lai, David E. King, Joseph Jankovic, and Robert G. Grossman
The authors report the postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in 36 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who underwent unilateral microelectrode-guided posteroventral pallidotomy. The lesions were placed within 1 mm of the ventral border of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) to include pallidothalamic outflow pathways. Sequential MR studies were obtained within 1 to 3 days postoperatively and at 6-month follow-up examination. Thirty-four (94%) of the 36 patients enjoyed sustained moderate or marked improvement of their parkinsonian symptoms 6 months postoperatively. Transient side effects occurred in five patients (14%), but there were no persistent complications. The pallidal radiofrequency lesions were prolate spheroid-shaped and were composed of three concentric zones in the early postoperative studies. The mean volume of the middle zone, corresponding to the area of hemorrhagic coagulation necrosis, was 44.4 +/- 17.6 mm3; the mean lesion volume as defined by the outer zone, corresponding to perilesional edema, was 262.2 +/− 111.6 mm3. Additional edema spreading to the internal capsule was noted in 32 of 34 cases and to the optic tract in 11 of 34 cases. In two patients small ischemic infarctions involving the corona radiata were found, and in one a venous infarction was detected. Ischemic infarction resulted in mild transient Broca's aphasia in one patient, but there was no detectable neurological deficit in the other two. The mean volume of late-phase (6 months) lesions was 22 +/− 28.8 mm3. In three patients no lesion was identified despite sustained clinical improvement. The lesion was located in the posteroventral GPi in all cases except in one patient in whom it was confined to the GP externus (GPe). This 49-year-old woman did not experience sustained benefit. The authors found no consistent correlations between lesion size and location and clinical outcome as measured by a global outcome score, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor, activities of daily living, and bradykinesia “off” scores or rating of dyskinesias. Lesioning of pallidal and subpallidal pathways may contribute to the sustained clinical benefit in this series. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis showed that intraoperative microelectrode recording facilitated accurate placement of the lesion in this critical area.