Top 25 Cited Gamma Knife® Surgery Articles—Meningioma

December 2017, Volume 127

Top 25 Cited Gamma Knife® Surgery Articles—Meningioma

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Robert M. Starke, James H. Nguyen, Jessica Rainey, Brian J. Williams, Jonathan H. Sherman, Jesse Savage, Chun Po Yen and Jason P. Sheehan

Object

Although numerous studies have analyzed the role of stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas, few studies have assessed outcomes of posterior fossa meningiomas after stereotactic radiosurgery. In this study, the authors evaluate the outcomes of posterior fossa meningiomas treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The authors also assess factors predictive of new postoperative neurological deficits and tumor progression.

Methods

A retrospective review was performed of a prospectively compiled database documenting the outcomes of 152 patients with posterior fossa meningiomas treated at the University of Virginia from 1990 to 2006. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 24 months. There were 30 males and 122 females, with a median age of 58 years (range 12–82 years). Seventy-five patients were treated with radiosurgery initially, and 77 patients were treated with GKS after resection. Patients were assessed clinically and radiographically at routine intervals following GKS. Factors predictive of new neurological deficit following GKS were assessed via univariate and multivariate analysis, and Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to assess factors predictive of tumor progression.

Results

Patients had meningiomas centered over the tentorium (35 patients, 23%), cerebellopontine angle (43 patients, 28%), petroclival region (28 patients, 18%), petrous region (6 patients, 4%), and clivus (40 patients, 26%). The median follow-up was 7 years (range 2–16 years). The mean preradiosurgical tumor volume was 5.7 cm3 (range 0.3–33 cm3), and mean postradiosurgical tumor volume was 4.9 cm3 (range 0.1–33 cm3). At last follow-up, 55 patients (36%) displayed no change in tumor volume, 78 (51%) displayed a decrease in volume, and 19 (13%) displayed an increase in volume. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated radiographic progression-free survival at 3, 5, and 10 years to be 98%, 96%, and 78%, respectively. In Cox multivariable analysis, pre-GKS covariates associated with tumor progression included age greater than 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] 3.24, 95% CI 1.12–9.37; p = 0.03) and a low dose to the tumor margin (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.60–0.97; p = 0.03), and post-GKS covariates included shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (HR 25.0, 95% CI 3.72–100.0; p = 0.001). At last clinical follow-up, 139 patients (91%) demonstrated no change or improvement in their neurological condition, and 13 patients showed symptom deterioration (9%). In multivariate analysis, the only factors predictive of new or worsening symptoms were clival or petrous location (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1–13.7; p = 0.03).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery offers an acceptable rate of tumor control for posterior fossa meningiomas and accomplishes this with a low incidence of neurological deficits. In patients selected for GKS, tumor progression is associated with age greater than 65 years and decreasing dose to the tumor margin. Clival- or petrous-based locations are predictive of an increased risk of new or worsening neurological deficit following GKS.

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Thomas J. Flannery, Hideyuki Kano, L. Dade Lunsford, Sait Sirin, Matthew Tormenti, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger and Douglas Kondziolka

Object

Because of their critical location adjacent to brain, cranial nerve, and vascular structures, petroclival meningiomas remain a clinical challenge. The authors evaluated outcomes in 168 patients with petroclival meningiomas who underwent Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) during a 21-year interval.

Methods

Gamma Knife surgery was used as either primary or adjuvant treatment of 168 petroclival meningiomas involving the region between the petrous apex and the upper two-thirds of the clivus. The most common presenting symptoms were trigeminal nerve dysfunction, balance problems, diplopia, and hearing loss. The median tumor volume was 6.1 cm3 (range 0.3–32.5 cm3), and the median radiation dose to the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 9–18 Gy).

Results

During a median follow-up of 72 months, neurological status improved in 44 patients (26%), remained stable in 98 (58%), and worsened in 26 (15%). Tumor volume decreased in 78 patients (46%), remained stable in 74 (44%), and increased in 16 (10%), all of whom were subjected to additional management strategies. Overall 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 91 and 86%, respectively. Patients followed up for at least 10 years (31 patients) had tumor and symptom control rates of 97 and 94%, respectively. Eight patients had repeat radiosurgery, 4 underwent delayed resection, and 4 had fractionated radiation therapy. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion was performed in 7 patients (4%). Significant risk factors for tumor progression were a tumor volume ≥ 8 cm3 (p = 0.001) and male sex (p = 0.02).

Conclusions

In this 21-year experience, GKS for petroclival meningiomas obviated initial or further resection in 98% of patients and was associated with a low risk of adverse radiation effects. The authors believe that radiosurgery should be considered as an initial option for patients with smaller-volume, symptomatic petroclival meningiomas.

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Douglas Kondziolka, Ricky Madhok, L. Dade Lunsford, David Mathieu, Juan J. Martin, Ajay Niranjan and John C. Flickinger

Object

Meningiomas of the cerebral convexity are often surgically curable because both the mass and involved dura mater can be removed. Stereotactic radiosurgery has become an important primary or adjuvant treatment for patients with intracranial meningiomas. The authors evaluated clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with convexity meningiomas after radiosurgery.

Methods

The patient cohort consisted of 125 patients with convexity meningiomas managed using radiosurgery at some point during an 18-year period. The patient series included 76 women, 55 patients who had undergone prior resection, and 6 patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2. Tumors were located in frontal (80 patients), parietal (24 patients), temporal (12 patients), and occipital (9 patients) areas. The WHO tumor grades in patients with prior resections were Grade I in 34 patients, Grade II in 15 patients, and Grade III in 6 patients. Seventy patients underwent primary radiosurgery and therefore had no prior histological tumor diagnosis. The mean tumor volume was 7.6 ml. Radiosurgery was performed using the Leksell Gamma Knife with a mean tumor margin dose of 14.2 Gy.

Results

Serial imaging was evaluated in 115 patients (92%). After primary radiosurgery, the tumor control rate was 92%. After adjuvant radiosurgery, the control rate was 97% for Grade I tumors. The actuarial tumor control rates at 3 and 5 years for the entire series were 86.1 ± 3.8% and 71.6 ± 8.6%, respectively. For patients with benign tumors (Grade I) and those without prior surgery, the actuarial tumor control rate was 95.3 ± 2.3% and 85.8 ± 9.3%, respectively. Delayed resection after radiosurgery was performed in 9 patients (7%) at an average of 35 months. No patient developed a subsequent radiation-induced tumor. The overall morbidity rate was 9.6%. Symptomatic peritumoral imaging changes compatible with edema or adverse radiation effects developed in 5%, at a mean of 8 months.

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery provides satisfactory control rates either after resection or as an alternate to resection, particularly for histologically benign meningiomas. Its role is most valuable for patients whose tumors affect critical neurological regions and who are poor candidates for resection. Both temporary and permanent morbidity are related to brain location and tumor volume.

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Yoshiyasu Iwai, Kazuhiro Yamanaka and Hidetoshi Ikeda

Object

In this study, the authors evaluate the long-term results after Gamma Knife radiosurgery of cranial base meningiomas. This study is a follow-up to their previously published report on the early results.

Methods

Between January 1994 and December 2001, the authors treated benign cranial base meningiomas in 108 patients using low-dose Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The tumor volumes ranged from 1.7 to 55.3 cm3 (median 8.1 cm3), and the radiosurgery doses ranged from 8 to 12 Gy (median 12 Gy) to the tumor margin.

Results

The mean duration of follow-up was 86.1 months (range 20–144 months). Tumor volume decreased in 50 patients (46%), remained stable in 51 patients (47%), and increased (local failure) in 7 patients (6%). Eleven patients experienced tumor recurrence outside the treatment field. Among these patients, marginal failure was seen in 5 and distant recurrence was seen in 6. Seven patients were thought to have malignant transformation based on histological or radiological characteristics of the lesion. The actuarial progression-free survival rate, including malignant transformation and outside recurrence, was 93% at 5 years and 83% at 10 years. Neurological status improved in 16 patients (15%). Permanent radiation injury occurred in 7 patients (6%).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment for cranial base meningiomas as demonstrated with a long-term follow-up period of > 7 years. Surgeons must be aware of the possibility of treatment failure, defined as local failure, marginal failure, and malignant transformation; however, this may be the natural course of meningiomas and not related to radiosurgery.

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Toshinori Hasegawa, Yoshihisa Kida, Masayuki Yoshimoto, Joji Koike, Hiroshi Iizuka and Dai Ishii

Object

The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes, including tumor control and neurological function, in patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas treated using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS).

Methods

One hundred fifteen patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas, excluding atypical or malignant meningiomas, were treated with GKS between 1991 and 2003. Forty-nine patients (43%) underwent GKS as the initial treatment. The mean tumor volume was 14 cm3, and the mean maximum and margin doses applied to the tumor were 27 and 13 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 62 months. During the follow-up, 111 patients were able to be evaluated with neuroimaging.

Results

The actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 87 and 73%, respectively. Similarly, the actuarial 5- and 10-year focal tumor control rates were 94 and 92%, respectively. Regarding functional outcomes, 43 patients (46%) experienced some degree of improvement, 40 (43%) remained stable, and 11 (12%) had worse preexisting or newly developed symptoms. Patients who underwent GKS as the initial treatment experienced significant improvement of their symptoms (p = 0.006).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery is a safe and effective treatment over the long term in selected patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas. Tumor progression is more likely to occur from the lesion margin outside the treatment volume. In small to medium-sized tumors, GKS is an excellent alternative to resection, preserving good neurological function. For relatively large-sized tumors, low-dose radiosurgery (≤ 12 Gy) is acceptable for the prevention of tumor progression.

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Aurelia Kollová, Roman Liščák, Josef Novotný Jr., Vilibald Vladyka, Gabriela Šimonová and Ladislava Janoušková

Object

Meningioma is the most frequent benign tumor treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS); however, the assessment of its efficacy and safety in slow-growing tumors is an ongoing process, requiring analysis of long-term results.

Methods

Three hundred sixty-eight patients harboring 400 meningiomas treated between 1992 and 1999 at Na Homolce Hospital were evaluated. The median patient age was 57 years (range 18–84 years). The median tumor volume was 4.4 cm3 (range 0.11–44.9 cm3). The median tumor margin dose to the 50% isodose line was 12.55 Gy (range 6.5–24 Gy). Descriptive analysis was performed in 331 patients (90%); 325 patients had a follow-up longer than 24 months (median 60 months), and six patients were included because of posttreatment complications. The volume of treated tumors decreased in 248 cases (69.7%), remained the same in 99 (27.8%), and increased in nine (2.5%). The actuarial tumor control rate was 97.9% at 5 years post-GKS. Perilesional edema after radiosurgery was confirmed on neuroim-aging in 51 patients (15.4%). The temporary and permanent morbidity rates after radiosurgery were 10.2 and 5.7%, respectively.

Results

A significantly higher incidence of tumor volume increase was observed in men compared with women and in tumors treated with a margin dose lower than 12 Gy. Significant risk factors for edema included an age greater than 60 years, no previous surgery, perilesional edema before radiosurgery, a tumor volume greater than 10 cm3, a tumor location in the anterior fossa, and a margin dose greater than 16 Gy.

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery is a safe method of treatment for meningiomas. A minimum margin dose of 12 to 16 Gy seems to represent the therapeutic window for benign meningiomas with a high tumor control rate in a mid-term follow-up period.

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Masahiro Shin, Hiroki Kurita, Tomio Sasaki, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Masao Tago, Nobutaka Kawahara, Akio Morita, Keisuke Ueki and Takaaki Kirino

Object. The long-term outcome of stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus (CS) meningiomas is not fully understood. The authors retrospectively reviewed their experience with 40 CS meningiomas treated with gamma knife radiosurgery.

Methods. Follow-up periods for the 40 patients ranged from 12 to 123 months (median 42 months), and the overall tumor control rates were 86.4% at 3 years and 82.3% at 10 years. Factors associated with tumor recurrence in univariate analysis were histological malignancy (p < 0.0001), partial treatment (p < 0.0001), suprasellar tumor extension (p = 0.0201), or extension in more than three directions outside the CS (p = 0.0345). When the tumor was completely covered with a dose to the margin that was higher than 14 Gy (Group A, 22 patients), no patient showed recurrence within the median follow-up period of 37 months. On the other hand, when a part of the tumor was treated with 10 to 12 Gy (Group B, 15 patients) or did not receive radiation therapy (Group C, three patients), the recurrence rates were 20% and 100%, respectively. Neurological deterioration was seen in nine patients, but all symptoms were transient or very mild.

Conclusions. The data indicate that stereotactic radiosurgery can control tumor growth if the whole mass can be irradiated by dosages of more than 14 Gy. When optimal radiosurgical planning is not feasible because of a tumor's large size, irregular shape, or proximity to visual pathways, use of limited surgical resection before radiosurgery is the best option and should provide sufficient long-term tumor control with minimal complications.