Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for vestibular schwannomas has evolved and improved over time. Although early short-term follow-up reports suggest that fractionation yields hearing preservation rates equivalent to modern single-dose SRS techniques, significant questions remain regarding long-term tumor control after the use of fractionation in a late responding tumor with a low proliferative index and α/β ratio. With single-dose SRS, critical hearing preservation variables include: 1) strict attention to prescription dose 3D conformality so that the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) receives ≤ 9 Gy; 2) careful delineation of the 3D tumor margin to exclude the cochlear nerve when visualizable with contrast-enhanced T2-weighted MR volumetric imaging techniques and exclusion the dura mater of the anterior border of the internal auditory canal; 3) a tumor margin dose prescription ≤ 12 Gy; 4) optimization of the tumor treatment gradient index without sacrificing coverage and conformality; and 5) strict attention to prescription dose 3D conformality so that the modiolus and the basal turn of the cochlea receive the lowest possible dose (ideally < 4–5.33 Gy). Testable correlates for the relative importance of the VCN versus cochlear dose given the tonotopic organization of each structure suggests that VCN toxicity should lead to preferential loss of low hearing frequencies, while cochlear toxicity should lead to preferential loss of high hearing frequencies. The potential after SRS for hearing toxicity from altered endolymph and/or perilymph fluid dynamics either via impaired fluid production and/or absorption has yet to be explored. Serous otitis media, ossicular or temporal bone osteonecrosis, and chondromalacia are not likely to be relevant factors or considerations for hearing preservation after SRS.
Leksell Top 25 - Vestibular Schwannoma
Mark E. Linskey, Peter A. S. Johnstone, Michael O'Leary, and Steven Goetsch
Object. The dosimetry of radiation exposure of healthy inner, middle, and external ear structures that leads to hearing loss, tinnitus, facial weakness, dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for vestibular schwannomas (VSs) is unknown. The authors quantified the dose of radiation received by these structures after GKS for VS to assess the likelihood that these doses contributed to postradiosurgery complications.
Methods. A retrospective study was performed using a prospectively acquired database of a consecutive series of 54 patients with VS who were treated with GKS during a 3.5-year period at an “open unit” gamma knife center. Point doses were measured for 18 healthy temporal bone structures in each patient, with the anatomical position of each sampling point confirmed by a fellowship-trained neurootologist. These values were compared against single-dose equivalents for the 5-year tolerance dose for a 5% risk of complications and the 5-year tolerance dose for a 50% risk of complications, which were calculated using known 2-Gy/fraction thresholds for chronic otitis, chondromalacia, and osseous necrosis, as well as the tumor margin dose and typical tumor margin prescription doses for patients in whom hearing preservation was attempted.
External and middle ear doses were uniformly low. The intratemporal facial nerve is susceptible to unintentionally high radiation exposure at the fundus of the internal auditory canal, with higher than tumor margin doses detected in 26% of cases. In the cochlea, the basal turn near the modiolus and its inferior portion are most susceptible, with doses greater than 12 Gy detected in 10.8 and 14.8% of cases. In the vestibular labyrinth, the ampulated ends of the lateral and posterior semicircular canals are most susceptible, with doses greater than 12 Gy detected in 7.4 and 5.1% of cases.
Conclusions. Doses delivered to middle and external ear structures are unlikely to contribute to post-GKS complications, but unexpectedly high doses may be delivered to sensitive areas of the intratemporal facial nerve and inner ear. Unintentional delivery of high doses to the stria vascularis, the sensory neuroepithelium of the inner ear organs and/or their ganglia, may play a role in the development of post-GKS tinnitus, hearing loss, dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance. Minimizing treatment complications post-GKS for VS requires precise dose planning conformality with the three-dimensional surface of the tumor.
Mark E. Linskey
✓ By definition, the term “radiosurgery” refers to the delivery of a therapeutic radiation dose in a single fraction, not simply the use of stereotaxy. Multiple-fraction delivery is better termed “stereotactic radiotherapy.” There are compelling radiobiological principles supporting the biological superiority of single-fraction radiation for achieving an optimal therapeutic response for the slowly proliferating, late-responding, tissue of a schwannoma. It is axiomatic that complication avoidance requires precise three-dimensional conformality between treatment and tumor volumes. This degree of conformality can only be achieved through complex multiisocenter planning. Alternative radiosurgery devices are generally limited to delivering one to four isocenters in a single treatment session. Although they can reproduce dose plans similar in conformality to early gamma knife dose plans by using a similar number of isocenters, they cannot reproduce the conformality of modern gamma knife plans based on magnetic resonance image—targeted localization and five to 30 isocenters.
A disturbing trend is developing in which institutions without nongamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) centers are championing and/or shifting to hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannomas. This trend appears to be driven by a desire to reduce complication rates to compete with modern GKS results by using complex multiisocenter planning. Aggressive advertising and marketing from some of these centers even paradoxically suggests biological superiority of hypofractionation approaches over single-dose radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas. At the same time these centers continue to use the term radiosurgery to describe their hypofractionated radiotherapy approach in an apparent effort to benefit from a GKS “halo effect.” It must be reemphasized that as neurosurgeons our primary duty is to achieve permanent tumor control for our patients and not to eliminate complications at the expense of potential late recurrence. The answer to minimizing complications while maintaining maximum tumor control is improved conformality of radiosurgery dose planning and not resorting to homeopathic radiosurgery doses or hypofractionation radiotherapy schemes.