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Jay Jagannathan, Chun-Po Yen, Dibyendu Kumar Ray, David Schlesinger, Rod J. Oskouian, Nader Pouratian, Mark E. Shaffrey, James Larner and Jason P. Sheehan

Object

This study evaluated the efficacy of postoperative Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) to the tumor cavity following gross-total resection of a brain metastasis.

Methods

A retrospective review was conducted of 700 patients who were treated for brain metastases using GKS. Forty-seven patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic disease underwent GKS to the postoperative resection cavity following gross-total resection of the tumor. Patients who underwent subtotal resection or who had visible tumor in the resection cavity on the postresection neuroimaging study (either CT or MR imaging with and without contrast administration) were excluded. Radiographic and clinical follow-up was assessed using clinic visits and MR imaging. The radiographic end point was defined as tumor growth control (no tumor growth regarding the resection cavity, and stable or decreasing tumor size for the other metastatic targets). Clinical end points were defined as functional status (assessed prospectively using the Karnofsky Performance Scale) and survival. Primary tumor pathology was consistent with lung cancer in 19 cases (40%), melanoma in 10 cases (21%), renal cell carcinoma in 7 cases (15%), breast cancer in 7 cases (15%), and gastrointestinal malignancies in 4 cases (9%). The mean duration between resection and radiosurgery was 15 days (range 2–115 days). The mean volume of the treated cavity was 10.5 cm3 (range 1.75–35.45 cm3), and the mean dose to the cavity margin was 19 Gy. In addition to the resection cavity, 34 patients (72%) underwent GKS for 116 synchronous metastases observed at the time of the initial radiosurgery.

Results

The mean radiographic follow-up duration was 14 months (median 10 months, range 4–37 months). Local tumor control at the site of the surgical cavity was achieved in 44 patients (94%), and tumor recurrence at the surgical site was statistically related to the volume of the surgical cavity (p = 0.04). During follow-up, 34 patients (72%) underwent additional radiosurgery for 140 new (metachronous) metastases. At the most recent follow-up evaluation, 11 patients (23%) were alive, whereas 36 patients had died (mean duration until death 12 months, median 10 months). Patients who showed good systemic control of their primary tumor tended to have longer survival durations than those who did not (p = 0.004). At the last clinical follow-up evaluation, the mean Karnofsky Performance Scale score for the overall group was 78 (median 80, range 40–100).

Conclusion:

Radiosurgery appears to be effective in terms of providing local tumor control at the resection cavity following resection of a brain metastasis, and in the treatment of synchronous and metachronous tumors. These data suggest that radiosurgery can be used to prevent recurrence following gross-total resection of a brain metastasis.

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Jay Jagannathan, Jason P. Sheehan, Nader Pouratian, Edward R. Laws, Ladislau Steiner and Mary Lee Vance

Object

In this study the authors address the efficacy and safety of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone–secreting pituitary adenomas.

Methods

A review of data collected from a prospective GKS database between January 1990 and March 2005 was performed in patients with Cushing's disease. All but one patient underwent resection for a pituitary tumor, without achieving remission. Successful endocrine outcome after GKS was defined as a normal 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) concentration posttreatment after a minimum of 1 year of follow up. Patient records were also evaluated for changes in tumor volume, development of new hormone deficiencies, visual acuity, cranial nerve neuropathies, and radiation-induced imaging changes. Ninety evaluable patients had undergone GKS, with a mean endocrine follow-up duration of 45 months (range 12–132 months). The mean dose to the tumor margin was 23 Gy (median 25 Gy).

Normal 24-hour UFC levels were achieved in 49 patients (54%), with an average time of 13 months after treatment (range 2–67 months). In the 49 patients in whom a tumor was visible on the planning magnetic resonance (MR) image, a decrease in tumor size occurred in 39 (80%), in seven patients there was no change in size, and tumor growth occurred in three patients. Ten patients (20%) experienced a relapse of Cushing's disease after initial remission; the mean time to recurrence was 27 months (range 6–60 months). Seven of these patients underwent repeated GKS, with three patients achieving a second remission. New hormone deficiencies developed in 20 patients (22%), with hypothyroidism being the most common endocrinopathy after GKS. Five patients experienced new visual deficits or third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve deficits; two of these patients had undergone prior conventional fractionated radiation therapy, and four of them had received previous GKS. Radiation-induced changes were observed on MR images in three patients; one had symptoms attributable to these changes.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery is an effective treatment for persistent Cushing's disease. Adenomas with cavernous sinus invasion that are not amenable to resection are treatable with the Gamma Knife. A second GKS treatment appears to increase the risk of cranial nerve damage. These results demonstrate the value of combining two neurosurgical treatment modalities—microsurgical resection and GKS—in the management of pituitary adenomas.