Leksell Top 25 - Meningioma

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Jason P. Sheehan, Robert M. Starke, Hideyuki Kano, Anthony M. Kaufmann, David Mathieu, Fred A. Zeiler, Michael West, Samuel T. Chao, Gandhi Varma, Veronica L. S. Chiang, James B. Yu, Heyoung L. McBride, Peter Nakaji, Emad Youssef, Norissa Honea, Stephen Rush, Douglas Kondziolka, John Y. K. Lee, Robert L. Bailey, Sandeep Kunwar, Paula Petti and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

Parasellar and sellar meningiomas are challenging tumors owing in part to their proximity to important neurovascular and endocrine structures. Complete resection can be associated with significant morbidity, and incomplete resections are common. In this study, the authors evaluated the outcomes of parasellar and sellar meningiomas managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) both as an adjunct to microsurgical removal or conventional radiation therapy and as a primary treatment modality.

Methods

A multicenter study of patients with benign sellar and parasellar meningiomas was conducted through the North American Gamma Knife Consortium. For the period spanning 1988 to 2011 at 10 centers, the authors identified all patients with sellar and/or parasellar meningiomas treated with GKRS. Patients were also required to have a minimum of 6 months of imaging and clinical follow-up after GKRS. Factors predictive of new neurological deficits following GKRS were assessed via univariate and multivariate analyses. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to assess factors predictive of tumor progression.

Results

The authors identified 763 patients with sellar and/or parasellar meningiomas treated with GKRS. Patients were assessed clinically and with neuroimaging at routine intervals following GKRS. There were 567 females (74.3%) and 196 males (25.7%) with a median age of 56 years (range 8–90 years). Three hundred fifty-five patients (50.7%) had undergone at least one resection before GKRS, and 3.8% had undergone prior radiation therapy. The median follow-up after GKRS was 66.7 months (range 6–216 months). At the last follow-up, tumor volumes remained stable or decreased in 90.2% of patients. Actuarial progression-free survival rates at 3, 5, 8, and 10 years were 98%, 95%, 88%, and 82%, respectively. More than one prior surgery, prior radiation therapy, or a tumor margin dose < 13 Gy significantly increased the likelihood of tumor progression after GKRS.

At the last clinical follow-up, 86.2% of patients demonstrated no change or improvement in their neurological condition, whereas 13.8% of patients experienced symptom progression. New or worsening cranial nerve deficits were seen in 9.6% of patients, with cranial nerve (CN) V being the most adversely affected nerve. Functional improvements in CNs, especially in CNs V and VI, were observed in 34% of patients with preexisting deficits. New or worsened endocrinopathies were demonstrated in 1.6% of patients; hypothyroidism was the most frequent deficiency. Unfavorable outcome with tumor growth and accompanying neurological decline was statistically more likely in patients with larger tumor volumes (p = 0.022) and more than 1 prior surgery (p = 0.021).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife radiosurgery provides a high rate of tumor control for patients with parasellar or sellar meningiomas, and tumor control is accompanied by neurological preservation or improvement in most patients.

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Douglas Kondziolka, Ricky Madhok, L. Dade Lunsford, David Mathieu, Juan J. Martin, Ajay Niranjan and John C. Flickinger

Object

Meningiomas of the cerebral convexity are often surgically curable because both the mass and involved dura mater can be removed. Stereotactic radiosurgery has become an important primary or adjuvant treatment for patients with intracranial meningiomas. The authors evaluated clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with convexity meningiomas after radiosurgery.

Methods

The patient cohort consisted of 125 patients with convexity meningiomas managed using radiosurgery at some point during an 18-year period. The patient series included 76 women, 55 patients who had undergone prior resection, and 6 patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2. Tumors were located in frontal (80 patients), parietal (24 patients), temporal (12 patients), and occipital (9 patients) areas. The WHO tumor grades in patients with prior resections were Grade I in 34 patients, Grade II in 15 patients, and Grade III in 6 patients. Seventy patients underwent primary radiosurgery and therefore had no prior histological tumor diagnosis. The mean tumor volume was 7.6 ml. Radiosurgery was performed using the Leksell Gamma Knife with a mean tumor margin dose of 14.2 Gy.

Results

Serial imaging was evaluated in 115 patients (92%). After primary radiosurgery, the tumor control rate was 92%. After adjuvant radiosurgery, the control rate was 97% for Grade I tumors. The actuarial tumor control rates at 3 and 5 years for the entire series were 86.1 ± 3.8% and 71.6 ± 8.6%, respectively. For patients with benign tumors (Grade I) and those without prior surgery, the actuarial tumor control rate was 95.3 ± 2.3% and 85.8 ± 9.3%, respectively. Delayed resection after radiosurgery was performed in 9 patients (7%) at an average of 35 months. No patient developed a subsequent radiation-induced tumor. The overall morbidity rate was 9.6%. Symptomatic peritumoral imaging changes compatible with edema or adverse radiation effects developed in 5%, at a mean of 8 months.

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery provides satisfactory control rates either after resection or as an alternate to resection, particularly for histologically benign meningiomas. Its role is most valuable for patients whose tumors affect critical neurological regions and who are poor candidates for resection. Both temporary and permanent morbidity are related to brain location and tumor volume.