Leksell Top 25 - Meningioma

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Jason P. Sheehan, Robert M. Starke, Hideyuki Kano, Anthony M. Kaufmann, David Mathieu, Fred A. Zeiler, Michael West, Samuel T. Chao, Gandhi Varma, Veronica L. S. Chiang, James B. Yu, Heyoung L. McBride, Peter Nakaji, Emad Youssef, Norissa Honea, Stephen Rush, Douglas Kondziolka, John Y. K. Lee, Robert L. Bailey, Sandeep Kunwar, Paula Petti and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

Parasellar and sellar meningiomas are challenging tumors owing in part to their proximity to important neurovascular and endocrine structures. Complete resection can be associated with significant morbidity, and incomplete resections are common. In this study, the authors evaluated the outcomes of parasellar and sellar meningiomas managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) both as an adjunct to microsurgical removal or conventional radiation therapy and as a primary treatment modality.

Methods

A multicenter study of patients with benign sellar and parasellar meningiomas was conducted through the North American Gamma Knife Consortium. For the period spanning 1988 to 2011 at 10 centers, the authors identified all patients with sellar and/or parasellar meningiomas treated with GKRS. Patients were also required to have a minimum of 6 months of imaging and clinical follow-up after GKRS. Factors predictive of new neurological deficits following GKRS were assessed via univariate and multivariate analyses. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to assess factors predictive of tumor progression.

Results

The authors identified 763 patients with sellar and/or parasellar meningiomas treated with GKRS. Patients were assessed clinically and with neuroimaging at routine intervals following GKRS. There were 567 females (74.3%) and 196 males (25.7%) with a median age of 56 years (range 8–90 years). Three hundred fifty-five patients (50.7%) had undergone at least one resection before GKRS, and 3.8% had undergone prior radiation therapy. The median follow-up after GKRS was 66.7 months (range 6–216 months). At the last follow-up, tumor volumes remained stable or decreased in 90.2% of patients. Actuarial progression-free survival rates at 3, 5, 8, and 10 years were 98%, 95%, 88%, and 82%, respectively. More than one prior surgery, prior radiation therapy, or a tumor margin dose < 13 Gy significantly increased the likelihood of tumor progression after GKRS.

At the last clinical follow-up, 86.2% of patients demonstrated no change or improvement in their neurological condition, whereas 13.8% of patients experienced symptom progression. New or worsening cranial nerve deficits were seen in 9.6% of patients, with cranial nerve (CN) V being the most adversely affected nerve. Functional improvements in CNs, especially in CNs V and VI, were observed in 34% of patients with preexisting deficits. New or worsened endocrinopathies were demonstrated in 1.6% of patients; hypothyroidism was the most frequent deficiency. Unfavorable outcome with tumor growth and accompanying neurological decline was statistically more likely in patients with larger tumor volumes (p = 0.022) and more than 1 prior surgery (p = 0.021).

Conclusions

Gamma Knife radiosurgery provides a high rate of tumor control for patients with parasellar or sellar meningiomas, and tumor control is accompanied by neurological preservation or improvement in most patients.

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Seong-Hyun Park, Hideyuki Kano, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

Object

To assess the long-term outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for cerebellopontine angle (CPA) meningiomas, the authors retrospectively reviewed data from a 20-year experience. They evaluated progression-free survival as well as improvement, stabilization, or deterioration in clinical symptoms.

Methods

Seventy-four patients with CPA meningiomas underwent SRS involving various Gamma Knife technologies between 1990 and 2010. The most common presenting symptoms were dizziness or disequilibrium, hearing loss, facial sensory dysfunction, and headache. The median tumor volume was 3.0 cm3 (range 0.3–17.1 cm3), and the median radiation dose to the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 11–16 Gy). The median follow-up period was 40 months (range 4–147 months).

Results

At last imaging follow-up, the tumor volume had decreased in 46 patients (62%), remained stable in 26 patients (35%), and increased in 2 patients (3%). The progression-free survival after SRS was 98% at 1 year, 98% at 3 years, and 95% at 5 years. At the last clinical follow-up, 23 patients (31%) showed neurological improvement, 43 patients (58%) showed no change in symptoms or signs, and 8 patients (11%) had worsening symptoms or signs. The neurological improvement rate after SRS was 16% at 1 year, 31% at 3 years, and 40% at 5 years. The post-SRS deterioration rate was 5% at 1 year, 10% at 3 years, and 16% at 5 years. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that trigeminal neuralgia was the symptom most likely to worsen after SRS (HR 0.08, 95% CI 0.02–0.31; p = 0.001). Asymptomatic peritumoral edema occurred in 4 patients (5%) after SRS, and symptomatic adverse radiation effects developed in 7 patients (9%).

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiosurgery for CPA meningiomas provided a high tumor control rate and relatively low risk of ARE. Tumor compression of the trigeminal nerve by a CPA meningioma resulted in an increased rate of facial pain worsening in this patient experience.

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Thomas J. Flannery, Hideyuki Kano, L. Dade Lunsford, Sait Sirin, Matthew Tormenti, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger and Douglas Kondziolka

Object

Because of their critical location adjacent to brain, cranial nerve, and vascular structures, petroclival meningiomas remain a clinical challenge. The authors evaluated outcomes in 168 patients with petroclival meningiomas who underwent Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) during a 21-year interval.

Methods

Gamma Knife surgery was used as either primary or adjuvant treatment of 168 petroclival meningiomas involving the region between the petrous apex and the upper two-thirds of the clivus. The most common presenting symptoms were trigeminal nerve dysfunction, balance problems, diplopia, and hearing loss. The median tumor volume was 6.1 cm3 (range 0.3–32.5 cm3), and the median radiation dose to the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 9–18 Gy).

Results

During a median follow-up of 72 months, neurological status improved in 44 patients (26%), remained stable in 98 (58%), and worsened in 26 (15%). Tumor volume decreased in 78 patients (46%), remained stable in 74 (44%), and increased in 16 (10%), all of whom were subjected to additional management strategies. Overall 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 91 and 86%, respectively. Patients followed up for at least 10 years (31 patients) had tumor and symptom control rates of 97 and 94%, respectively. Eight patients had repeat radiosurgery, 4 underwent delayed resection, and 4 had fractionated radiation therapy. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion was performed in 7 patients (4%). Significant risk factors for tumor progression were a tumor volume ≥ 8 cm3 (p = 0.001) and male sex (p = 0.02).

Conclusions

In this 21-year experience, GKS for petroclival meningiomas obviated initial or further resection in 98% of patients and was associated with a low risk of adverse radiation effects. The authors believe that radiosurgery should be considered as an initial option for patients with smaller-volume, symptomatic petroclival meningiomas.