Leksell Top 25 - Meningioma

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Bruce E. Pollock, Scott L. Stafford, Michael J. Link, Yolanda I. Garces and Robert L. Foote

Object

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an important treatment option for patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSM). To analyze factors associated with local tumor control and complications after single-fraction SRS, the authors reviewed cases involving patients treated with Gamma Knife SRS between 1990 and 2008.

Methods

Excluded were patients with WHO Grade II or III tumors, radiation-induced tumors, multiple meningiomas, neurofibromatosis Type 2, and prior or concurrent radiotherapy. Five patients were lost to follow-up and 3 patients refused research authorization. The remaining 115 patients (29 men, 86 women) had either histologically confirmed WHO Grade I (n = 46, 40%) or presumed (n = 69, 60%) CSM. The median treatment volume was 9.3 cm3 (range 1.3–42.2 cm3). The median margin dose was 16 Gy (range 12–20 Gy). The median follow-up after SRS was 89 months (range 12–251 months). Thirty-nine patients (34%) had 10 or more years of follow-up after SRS.

Results

Six patients (5%) had tumor progression (in field, n = 3; marginal, n = 3) at a median of 74 months (range 42–145 months) after SRS. The local tumor control rate was 99% at 5 years and 93% at 10 years after SRS. No analyzed factor was associated with local control after SRS. Fourteen patients (12%) had permanent complications at a median onset of 23 months (range 2–146 months) including trigeminal dysfunction (n = 9), diplopia (n = 2), ischemic stroke (n = 2), and hypopituitarism (n = 1). The 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year rates of complications were 7%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. Multivariate analysis found larger treatment volume (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.02–1.2, p = 0.01) to be associated with complications after SRS. The complication rate for patients with a treatment volume of 9.3 cm3 or less was 3% (2 of 58 cases) compared with 21% (12 of 57 cases) for patients with a treatment volume greater than 9.4 cm3.

Conclusions

Single-fraction SRS at the radiation doses used in this series provided durable tumor control for patients with benign CSM. Larger tumor volume remains the primary factor associated with complications after single-fraction SRS of benign CSM despite advancements in SRS technique.

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Akio Morita, Robert J. Coffey, Robert L. Foote, David Schiff and Deborah Gorman

Object. In this study the authors sought to determine the neurological risks and potential clinical benefits of gamma knife radiosurgery for skull base meningiomas.

Methods. A consecutive series of 88 patients harboring skull base meningiomas were treated between 1990 and 1996 by using the Leksell gamma knife in a prospective clinical study that included a strict dose—volume protocol. Forty-nine patients had previously undergone surgery, and six had received external-beam radiotherapy. The median treatment volume was 10 cm3, and the median dose to the tumor margin was 16 Gy. The radiosurgical dosage to the optic nerve, the cavernous sinus, and Meckel's cave was calculated and correlated with clinical outcome. The median patient follow-up time was 35 months (range 12–83 months).

Two tumors (2.3%) progressed after radiosurgery; the progression-free 5-year survival rate was 95%. At last follow-up review, 60 (68%) tumors were smaller and 26 (29.5%) remained unchanged. Clinical improvement (in vision, trigeminal pain, or other cranial nerve symptoms) occurred in 15 patients. Functioning optic nerves received a median dose of 10 Gy (range 1–16 Gy), and no treatment-induced visual loss occurred. Among nine patients with new trigeminal neuropathy, six received doses of more than 19 Gy to Meckel's cave.

Conclusions. Gamma knife radiosurgery appeared to be an effective method to control the growth of most skull base meningiomas in this intermediate-term study. The risk of trigeminal neuropathy seemed to be associated with doses of more than 19 Gy, and the optic apparatus appeared to tolerate doses greater than 10 Gy. Considering the risks to cranial nerves associated with open surgery for comparable tumors, the authors believe that gamma knife radiosurgery is a useful method for the management of properly selected recurrent, residual, or newly diagnosed skull base meningiomas.