Leksell Top 25 - Meningioma
Akio Morita, Robert J. Coffey, Robert L. Foote, David Schiff, and Deborah Gorman
Object. In this study the authors sought to determine the neurological risks and potential clinical benefits of gamma knife radiosurgery for skull base meningiomas.
Methods. A consecutive series of 88 patients harboring skull base meningiomas were treated between 1990 and 1996 by using the Leksell gamma knife in a prospective clinical study that included a strict dose—volume protocol. Forty-nine patients had previously undergone surgery, and six had received external-beam radiotherapy. The median treatment volume was 10 cm3, and the median dose to the tumor margin was 16 Gy. The radiosurgical dosage to the optic nerve, the cavernous sinus, and Meckel's cave was calculated and correlated with clinical outcome. The median patient follow-up time was 35 months (range 12–83 months).
Two tumors (2.3%) progressed after radiosurgery; the progression-free 5-year survival rate was 95%. At last follow-up review, 60 (68%) tumors were smaller and 26 (29.5%) remained unchanged. Clinical improvement (in vision, trigeminal pain, or other cranial nerve symptoms) occurred in 15 patients. Functioning optic nerves received a median dose of 10 Gy (range 1–16 Gy), and no treatment-induced visual loss occurred. Among nine patients with new trigeminal neuropathy, six received doses of more than 19 Gy to Meckel's cave.
Conclusions. Gamma knife radiosurgery appeared to be an effective method to control the growth of most skull base meningiomas in this intermediate-term study. The risk of trigeminal neuropathy seemed to be associated with doses of more than 19 Gy, and the optic apparatus appeared to tolerate doses greater than 10 Gy. Considering the risks to cranial nerves associated with open surgery for comparable tumors, the authors believe that gamma knife radiosurgery is a useful method for the management of properly selected recurrent, residual, or newly diagnosed skull base meningiomas.
Douglas Kondziolka, L. Dade Lunsford, Robert J. Coffey, and John C. Flickinger
✓ Stereotactic radiosurgery has an expanding role in the management of selected intracranial tumors. In an initial 30-month experience using the 201-source cobalt-60 gamma knife at the University of Pittsburgh, 50 patients with meningiomas were treated. The most frequent site of origin was the skull base. Previously, 36 patients (72%) had undergone at least one craniotomy and four patients (8%) had received fractionated external beam radiation therapy. Stereotactic radiosurgery was the primary treatment modality in 16 patients (32%) with symptomatic tumors demonstrated by neuroimaging. Computer imaging-generated isodose plans (with one to five irradiation isocenters) for single-treatment irradiation gave optimal (≥ 50% isodose line) coverage in 44 patients (88%). The proximity of cranial nerves or vascular, pituitary, and brain-stem structures to the often convoluted tumor mass was crucial to dose selection. Serial imaging studies were evaluated in all 50 patients. Twenty-four patients were examined between 12 and 36 months after treatment; 13 (54%) showed a reduction in tumor volume while nine (38%) showed no change. Of 26 patients evaluated between 6 and 12 months after treatment, four showed a decrease in tumor size while 22 showed no change. Two patients (both with large tumors that received suboptimal irradiation) had delayed tumor growth outside the radiosurgical treatment volume. The actuarial 2-year tumor growth control rate was 96%. Between 3 and 12 months after radiosurgery, three patients developed delayed neurological deficits that gradually improved, compatible with delayed radiation injury. Although extended follow-up monitoring over many years will be necessary to fully evaluate treatment, to date stereotactic radiosurgery has proved to be a relatively safe and effective therapy for selected patients with symptomatic meningiomas, including those who failed surgical resection. Radiosurgery was an effective primary treatment alternative for those patients whose advanced age, medical condition, or high-risk tumor location mitigated against surgical resection.