✓The authors present a unique case of hyperhidrosis as a side effect of a misplaced deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode near the ventrointermedius (Vim) nucleus in a patient with essential tremor. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed electrode placement in the left anterior thalamus traversing the hypothalamus. High-frequency electrical stimulation possibly resulted in unilateral activation of the efferent sympathetic pathways in the zona incerta. Although a rare complication, hypothalamic dysfunction may occur as a stimulation-related side effect of Vim-DBS.
Deep Brain Stimulation
Alan Diamond, Christopher Kenney, Michael Almaguer and Joseph Jankovic
Christopher Kenney, Richard Simpson, Christine Hunter, William Ondo, Michael Almaguer, Anthony Davidson and Joseph Jankovic
The object of this study was to assess the long-term safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a large population of patients with a variety of movement disorders.
All patients treated with DBS at the authors' center between 1995 and 2005 were assessed for intraoperative, perioperative, and long-term adverse events (AEs).
A total of 319 patients underwent DBS device implantation. Of these 319, 182 suffered from medically refractory Parkinson disease; the other patients had essential tremor (112 patients), dystonia (19 patients), and other hyperkinetic movement disorders (six patients). Intraoperative AEs were rare and included vasovagal response in eight patients (2.5%), syncope in four (1.2%), severe cough in three (0.9%), transient ischemic attack in one (0.3%), arrhythmia in one (0.3%), and confusion in one (0.3%). Perioperative AEs included headache in 48 patients (15.0%), confusion in 16 (5.0%), and hallucinations in nine (2.8%). Serious intraoperative/perioperative AEs included isolated seizure in four patients (1.2%), intracerebral hemorrhage in two patients (0.6%), intraventricular hemorrhage in two patients (0.6%), and a large subdural hematoma in one patient (0.3%). Persistent long-term complications of DBS surgery included dysarthria (4.0%), worsening gait (3.8%), cognitive dysfunction (4.0%), and infection (4.4%). Revisions were completed in 25 patients (7.8%) for the following reasons: loss of effect, lack of efficacy, infection, lead fracture, and lead migration. Hardware-related complications included 12 lead fractuxres and 10 lead migrations.
The authors conclude that in their 10-year experience, DBS has proven to be safe for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders.