Deep Brain Stimulation
Jerzy Slowinski, Ryan J. Uitti, John D. Putzke, and Robert E. Wharen Jr.
Kelly E. Lyons and Rajesh Pahwa
The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson disease (PD) on sleep, daytime sleepiness, and early morning dystonia and to evaluate the relationship between total sleep time and motor function.
Patients who had undergone bilateral STN DBS and a follow-up evaluation of 6 months (89 patients), 12 months (83 patients), and 24 months (43 patients) were included in this study. The patients were preoperatively assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in the medication-on and -off conditions, and they completed patient diaries. A subset of patients also completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. These assessments were repeated postoperatively with stimulation.
The UPDRS activities of daily living (ADL) and motor scores as well as total sleep hours were significantly improved at 6, 12, and 24 months poststimulation and with no medication compared with baseline values. Increased sleep time was significantly correlated with improvements in bradykinesia but not with tremor or rigidity. Patient-reported sleep problems and early morning dystonia were reduced after STN DBS. Antiparkinsonian medications were significantly reduced after STN DBS; however, there were no changes in excessive daytime sleepiness 6, 12, or 24 months after surgery.
Bilateral STN DBS increased total sleep time and reduced patient-reported sleep problems and early morning dystonia for up to 24 months posttreatment. These changes in sleep were related to improvements in functioning, specifically those affected by bradykinesia. Despite significant reductions in antiparkinsonian medications, STN DBS did not reduce excessive daytime sleepiness.
Rajesh Pahwa, Kelly E. Lyons, Steven B. Wilkinson, Richard K. Simpson Jr., William G. Ondo, Daniel Tarsy, Thorkild Norregaard, Jean P. Hubble, Donald A. Smith, Robert A. Hauser, and Joseph Jankovic
The effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson disease (PD) have been well documented, but there is a paucity of long-term data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longterm safety and efficacy of DBS of the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus for PD and ET.
Thirty-eight of 45 patients enrolled at five sites completed a 5-year follow-up study. There were 26 patients with ET and 19 with PD undergoing 29 unilateral (18 ET/11 PD) and 16 bilateral (eight ET/eight PD) procedures. Patients with ET were evaluated using the Tremor Rating Scale, and patients with PD were evaluated using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. The mean age of patients with ET was 70.2 years and 66.3 years in patients with PD. Unilaterally implanted patients with ET had a 75% improvement of the targeted hand tremor; those with bilateral implants had a 65% improvement in the left hand and 86% in the right compared with baseline. Parkinsonian patients with unilateral implants had an 85% improvement in the targeted hand tremor and those with bilateral implants had a 100% improvement in the left hand and 90% improvement in the right. Common DBS-related adverse events in patients receiving unilateral implants were paresthesia (45%) and pain (41%), and in patients receiving implants bilaterally dysarthria (75%) and balance difficulties (56%) occurred. Device-related surgical revisions other than IPG replacements occurred in 12 (27%) of the 45 patients.
Thalamic stimulation is safe and effective for the long-term management of essential and parkinsonian tremors. Bilateral stimulation can cause dysarthria and incoordination and should be used cautiously.