COVID-19

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John Paul G. Kolcun, Won Hyung A. Ryu, and Vincent C. Traynelis

OBJECTIVE

The use of telemedicine (TM) has long been available, but recent restrictions to hospitals due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have accelerated the global implementation of TM. However, evidence on the effectiveness of this technology for the care of spine surgery patients is limited. In this systematic review the authors aimed to examine the current utilization of TM for spine surgery.

METHODS

Using PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library, the authors performed a systematic review of the literature focused on the themes of telemedicine and spine surgery. Included in the search were randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-controlled studies. Two independent reviewers conducted the study appraisal, data abstraction, and quality assessments of the studies.

RESULTS

Out of 1463 references from the initial search results, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of TM interventions focused on improving perioperative patient communication and patient education by using mobile phone apps, online surveys, or online materials for consent. The studies reported the feasibility of the use of TM for perioperative care and positive user experiences from the patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The current increase in TM adoption due to the COVID-19 crisis presents an opportunity to further develop and validate this technology. Early evidence in the literature supports the use of TM as an adjunct to traditional in-person clinical encounters for certain perioperative tasks such as supplemental patient education and postoperative surveys.

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Praveen V. Mummaneni, John F. Burke, Andrew K. Chan, Julie Ann Sosa, Errol P. Lobo, Valli P. Mummaneni, Sheila Antrum, Sigurd H. Berven, Michael S. Conte, Sarah B. Doernberg, Andrew N. Goldberg, Christopher P. Hess, Steven W. Hetts, S. Andrew Josephson, Maureen P. Kohi, C. Benjamin Ma, Vaikom S. Mahadevan, Annette M. Molinaro, Andrew H. Murr, Sirisha Narayana, John P. Roberts, Marshall L. Stoller, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Thomas P. Vail, Sandra Wienholz, Michael A. Gropper, Adrienne Green, and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECTIVE

During the COVID-19 pandemic, quaternary-care facilities continue to provide care for patients in need of urgent and emergent invasive procedures. Perioperative protocols are needed to streamline care for these patients notwithstanding capacity and resource constraints.

METHODS

A multidisciplinary panel was assembled at the University of California, San Francisco, with 26 leaders across 10 academic departments, including 7 department chairpersons, the chief medical officer, the chief operating officer, infection control officers, nursing leaders, and resident house staff champions. An epidemiologist, an ethicist, and a statistician were also consulted. A modified two-round, blinded Delphi method based on 18 agree/disagree statements was used to build consensus. Significant disagreement for each statement was tested using a one-sided exact binomial test against an expected outcome of 95% consensus using a significance threshold of p < 0.05. Final triage protocols were developed with unblinded group-level discussion.

RESULTS

Overall, 15 of 18 statements achieved consensus in the first round of the Delphi method; the 3 statements with significant disagreement (p < 0.01) were modified and iteratively resubmitted to the expert panel to achieve consensus. Consensus-based protocols were developed using unblinded multidisciplinary panel discussions. The final algorithms 1) quantified outbreak level, 2) triaged patients based on acuity, 3) provided a checklist for urgent/emergent invasive procedures, and 4) created a novel scoring system for the allocation of personal protective equipment. In particular, the authors modified the American College of Surgeons three-tiered triage system to incorporate more urgent cases, as are often encountered in neurosurgery and spine surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Urgent and emergent invasive procedures need to be performed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The consensus-based protocols in this study may assist healthcare providers to optimize perioperative care during the pandemic.

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Ryan Planchard, Daniel Lubelski, Jeff Ehresman, and Daniel Sciubba

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Zoher Ghogawala, Shekar Kurpad, Asdrubal Falavigna, Michael W. Groff, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jau-Ching Wu, Paul Park, Sigurd Berven, Daniel J. Hoh, Erica F. Bisson, Michael P. Steinmetz, Marjorie C. Wang, Dean Chou, Charles A. Sansur, Justin S. Smith, and Luis M. Tumialán