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The current state of immunotherapy for gliomas: an eye toward the future

JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article

Peter E. Fecci and John H. Sampson

The last decade has seen a crescendo of FDA approvals for immunotherapies against solid tumors, yet glioblastoma remains a prominent holdout. Despite more than 4 decades of work with a wide range of immunotherapeutic modalities targeting glioblastoma, efficacy has been challenging to obtain. Earlier forms of immune-based platforms have now given way to more current approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor T-cells, personalized neoantigen vaccines, oncolytic viruses, and checkpoint blockade. The recent experiences with each, as well as the latest developments and anticipated challenges, are reviewed.