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Gifford, C., Minnema, A. J., Baum, J., Humeidan, M. L., Vazquez, D. E., & Farhadi, H. (2019). Development of a postoperative ileus risk assessment scale: identification of intraoperative opioid exposure as a significant predictor after spinal surgery, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine SPI, 31(5), 748-755. Retrieved Dec 9, 2019, from https://thejns.org/spine/view/journals/j-neurosurg-spine/31/5/article-p748.xml